Banques mutualistes et systèmes financiers : une analyse comparative Allemagne, Grande-Bretagne, France
[eng] Mutual banks and financial systems : a comparative analysis in Germany, Great Britain and France According to the recent literature, mutual banks would be characterised by an objective of social utility in contrast with the objective of profitability of commercial banks. We confront this idea with the analysis of mutual banks of three European economies (German, British, French) who present strong specificities. In these three cases, mutual banks represent significant parts of the banking sector and their profitability is comparable to the commercial banks’. The profitability of mutual banks refutes Allen & Gale’s analysis (1995-2000) who explain that the mutual status implies employment costs heavier than those of commercial banks. The studied mutual banks constitute a feature of the European financial system of which the recent evolution opens favourable prospect. JEL classifications : G21, L2 [fre] Selon la littérature récente, les banques mutualistes seraient caractérisées par un objectif d’utilité sociale par opposition à l’objectif de rentabilité des banques ordinaires. Nous confrontons cette perspective à l’analyse des banques mutualistes de trois économies européennes (allemande, britannique, française) qui présentent chacune de fortes spécificités. Dans ces trois cas les banques mutualistes représentent des parts significatives du chiffre d’affaires bancaire et une rentabilité comparable à celle des banques ordinaires. La rentabilité des banques mutualistes va ainsi à l’encontre de l’analyse d’Allen et Gale (1995-2000) qui avancent que le statut mutualiste implique des coûts d’emploi plus lourds que ceux du secteur commercial. Les banques mutualistes étudiées constituent une particularité du système financier européen dont l’évolution récente ouvre des perspectives favorables. Classification JEL : G21, L2
Volume (Year): 67 (2002)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
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