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Budget Balance: Through Revenue or Spending Adjustment: Evidence from Pakistan


  • Nadeem Iqbal

    (Institute of Management Sciences, Hayatabad, Peshawar)

  • Wasim Shahid Malik

    (School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad)


In this study we analyze how government expenditures, taxes and debt respond to primary budget deficit in case of Pakistan during the period 1961 to 2007. Results from Johansen cointegration test support the existence of one cointegrating vector. Further to study the behaviour of intertemporal budget constraint, we use error correction model. The main result we obtain is that budget deficit is financed by taking loan and through monetization of debt; it is neither adjusted by increasing total revenues nor by decreasing total government expenditures. So a deficit does not generate long run stabilizing effect on total revenues and government expenditures and behaviour of these two is independent of each other.

Suggested Citation

  • Nadeem Iqbal & Wasim Shahid Malik, 2010. "Budget Balance: Through Revenue or Spending Adjustment: Evidence from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 611-630.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:49:y:2010:i:4:p:611-630

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Henning Bohn, "undated". "Budget Balance Through Revenue or Spending Adjustments ? Some Historical Evidence for the United States (Reprint 013)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 03-91, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ihtsham Padda, 2014. "On minimizing the welfare cost of fiscal policy: evidence from South Asia," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 1553-1572, May.

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