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Export Diversification and the Structural Dynamics in the Growth Process: The Case of Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Mohammad Akbar

    (Applied Economics Research Centre, University of Karachi.)

  • Sabahat Zareen F. Naqvi

    (World Bank, Islamabad.)

Abstract

In the present paper we have tried to examine Pakistan’s experience with exports and growth by constructing several measures of diversification and structural change in Pakistan’s exports from a dis-aggregated data over a period of 27 years (1972-73 to 1997-98). Then using these measures we have tested a number of relationships among the structure of exports, export growth, aggregate growth, and world growth. By looking at the evolution and structural change of exports by sectors over the long run, we find a number of interesting results. First, the degree of export diversification increased sharply from 1979 and continued till 1985. After 1985, and with the return of the democracy in the country. There was a marked reduction in the export diversification and it went back to pre-1979 level. Secondly, a crude association of ‘traditionality’ with primary products and ‘non-traditionality’ with manufactured exports fails to represent Pakistan’s experience. As Pakistan emerged from an import substitution period into a period of structural change and free trade, its true comparative advantage was more visibly expressed, thus some manufactured exports declined while some primary products grew. Third, the shortrun dynamics of diversification and structural change show a marked pattern. Most change in the composition of exports has taken place during periods of boom in the domestic economy but when the world economy was experiencing a relatively recessionary period.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohammad Akbar & Sabahat Zareen F. Naqvi, 2000. "Export Diversification and the Structural Dynamics in the Growth Process: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 573-589.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:39:y:2000:i:4:p:573-589
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Riezman, Raymond G & Whiteman, Charles H & Summers, Peter M, 1996. "The Engine of Growth or Its Handmaiden? A Time-Series Assessment of Export-Led Growth," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 77-110.
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    4. Amin Gutierrez de Pineres, Sheila & Ferrantino, Michael, 1997. "Export diversification and structural dynamics in the growth process: The case of Chile," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 375-391, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Matthew McCartney, 2015. "The Missing Economic Magic: The Failure of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Devaluation in Pakistan, 1980–2012," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 20(Special E), pages 59-86, September.
    2. Chaudhry, Azam & Bukhari, Syed Kalim Hyder, 2013. "A structural VAR analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on Pakistan's textile exports," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 302-315.
    3. Javed, Zanib & Munir, Kashif, 2016. "Impact of Export Composition on Economic Growth in South Asia," MPRA Paper 71519, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Mucahit Aydin & Murat Sari, 2014. "Relationship Between Gdp And Export In Turkey," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 0, pages 282-288, May.
    5. Syed Raza & Syed Jawaid, 2014. "Foreign capital inflows, economic growth and stock market capitalization in Asian countries: an ARDL bound testing approach," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 375-385, January.
    6. Matthew McCartney, 2011. "Pakistan, Growth, Dependency, and Crisis," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 16(Special E), pages 71-94, September.
    7. Lectard, Pauline & Rougier, Eric, 2018. "Can Developing Countries Gain from Defying Comparative Advantage? Distance to Comparative Advantage, Export Diversification and Sophistication, and the Dynamics of Specialization," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 90-110.
    8. Nasim Shah Shirazi & Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, 2005. "Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Further Econometric Evidence From South Asia," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 43(4), pages 472-488, December.
    9. Nasim Shah Shirazi & Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap, 2004. "Exports and Economic Growth Nexus: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(4), pages 563-581.
    10. Muhammad Shahbaz & Amatul Razzaq Chaudhary & Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad, 2018. "Is energy consumption sensitive to foreign capital inflows and currency devaluation in Pakistan?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(52), pages 5641-5658, November.
    11. Hongbo Liu & Hanho Kim & Justin Choe, 2019. "Export diversification, CO2 emissions and EKC: panel data analysis of 125 countries," Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 361-393, June.
    12. Mohsin Hasnain Ahmad & Shaista Alam & Mohammad Sabihuddin Butt, 2003. "Foreign Direct Investment, Exports, and Domestic Output in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 715-723.
    13. Aamir Hussain Siddiqui, 2018. "Export Diversification and Growth in Pakistan: An Empirical Investigation from 1972 to 2015," Business & Economic Review, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, vol. 10(1), pages 107-132, March.

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