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Lending of First versus Lending of Last Resort: The Bulgarian Financial Crisis of 1996/19971

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  • Michael Berlemann

    () ([1] ifo Institute for Economic Research, Branch Dresden, Einsteinstrasse 3, D-01069 Dresden, Germany [2] Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.)

  • Nikolay Nenovsky

    ([1] 3Bulgarian National Bank, Sofia, Bulgaria [2] 4University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria [3] 5Université d'Orléans, Orléans, France)

Abstract

In 1996/1997 Bulgaria was hit by a severe financial crisis, spreading from a banking crisis to a currency crisis. We argue that the Bulgarian Financial Crisis might serve as an illustrative example of a twin crisis involving both a currency and a banking crisis. While the Bulgarian Crisis had some properties of the so-called fundamental crises, as explained by first-generation models of currency crises, the severity of the crisis was primarily (but not only) due to systematic and path-dependent moral hazard behaviour of the banking sector. Special attention is paid to the crucial role the Bulgarian National Bank played in the pre-crisis and crisis periods when acting more as a lender of first resort rather than a lender of last resort (LOLR). We also show how Bulgaria managed to overcome the crisis by introducing a second-generation currency board allowing the central bank to act strictly as a limited LOLR, thereby making the country less prone to a financial crisis in the future. Comparative Economic Studies (2004) 46, 245–271. doi:10.1057/palgrave.ces.8100028

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Berlemann & Nikolay Nenovsky, 2004. "Lending of First versus Lending of Last Resort: The Bulgarian Financial Crisis of 1996/19971," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 46(2), pages 245-271, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:compes:v:46:y:2004:i:2:p:245-271
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Sébastien Charles & Jonathan Marie, 2016. "Hyperinflation bulgare de 1997 : transition, fragilité bancaire et change," CEPN Working Papers 2016-13, Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord.
    2. Nikolay Nenovsky & Gergana Mihaylova, 2007. "Dynamics of the Financial Wealth of the Institutional Sectors in Bulgaria for the Period 1990 – 2005," Economic Thought journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 72-92.
    3. Minea, Alexandru & Rault, Christophe, 2011. "External monetary shocks and monetary integration: Evidence from the Bulgarian currency board," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 2271-2281, September.
    4. Kiril Tochkov & Nikolay Nenovsk, 2010. "Institutional Reforms, EU Accession, and Bank Efficiency: Evidence from Bulgaria," Working Papers 201005, Texas Christian University, Department of Economics.
    5. Nikolay NENOVSKY & Kiril TOCHKOV & Camélia TURCU, 2011. "Monetary Regimes and EU Accession: Comparing Bulgaria and Romania," LEO Working Papers / DR LEO 1251, Orleans Economics Laboratory / Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orleans (LEO), University of Orleans.
    6. Kiril Tochkov & Nikolay Nenovsky, 2011. "Institutional Reforms, EU Accession, and Bank Efficiency in Transition Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 47(1), pages 113-129, January.
    7. Nikolay Nenovsky, 2010. "Monetary Regimes In Post-Communist Countries Some Long-Term Reflections," Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi - Stiinte Economice, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 57, pages 217-234, november.
    8. Berlemann, Michael & Hielscher, Kai, 2011. "A Time-varying Indicator of Effective Monetary Policy Conservatism," Working Paper 112/2011, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg.
    9. Michael Berlemann & Kai Hielscher, 2016. "Measuring Effective Monetary Policy Conservatism of Central Banks: A Dynamic Approach," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 17(1), pages 105-132, May.
    10. Nenovsky, Nikolay & MIlev, Jeko, 2014. "Bulgarian Welfare System (1989 – 2014) During the Transition and the Crisis," MPRA Paper 62039, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2014.
    11. Berlemann, Michael & Hielscher, Kai, 2009. "Measuring Effective Monetary Policy Conservatism," Working Paper 89/2009, Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg.
    12. Hielscher, Kai & Markwardt, Gunther, 2012. "The role of political institutions for the effectiveness of central bank independence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 286-301.
    13. Mark Mietzner & Dirk Schiereck, 2011. "Staatsfonds als Ankerinvestoren: Eine Note zum Einstieg von Aabar bei Daimler," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 12(1), pages 92-100, February.
    14. Nikolay NENOVSKY, 2010. "One History of Bulgarian Economic Thought since the Fall of Communism," LEO Working Papers / DR LEO 1311, Orleans Economics Laboratory / Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orleans (LEO), University of Orleans.
    15. Peet, Evan D. & Fink, Günther & Fawzi, Wafaie, 2015. "Returns to education in developing countries: Evidence from the living standards and measurement study surveys," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 69-90.
    16. Michael Berlemann & Kai Hielscher, 2013. "Effective Monetary Policy Conservatism: A Comparison of 13 OECD Countries," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 60(3), pages 267-290, July.

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