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Takeover Bidding with Signaling Incentives


  • Tingjun Liu


This study examines takeover bidding contests in which privately informed bidders have incentives to signal high values to uninformed investors through their bids. Such incentives could arise in a large number of situations from financing and managerial concerns. The findings show that the dynamic nature of the takeover contests plays a critical role in the signaling process, allowing bidders to signal high values in two ways. Such signaling bears important consequences on the bids, the allocative efficiency, the target's and bidders' profits, as well as the winner's post-takeover stock price performance and volatility. The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Tingjun Liu, 2012. "Takeover Bidding with Signaling Incentives," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(2), pages 522-556.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:25:y:2012:i:2:p:522-556

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    Cited by:

    1. Dan Bernhardt & Tingjun Liu & Robert Marquez, 2018. "Targeting Target Shareholders," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(4), pages 1489-1509, April.
    2. Tingjun Liu & Dan Bernhardt, 2021. "Rent Extraction with Securities Plus Cash," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 76(4), pages 1869-1912, August.
    3. Vladimirov, Vladimir, 2015. "Financing bidders in takeover contests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 534-557.
    4. Liu, Tingjun, 2016. "Optimal equity auctions with heterogeneous bidders," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 94-123.
    5. Schneck, Colin & Bessler, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jan, 2014. "Bidder Contests in International Mergers and Acquisitions: The Impact of Toeholds, Preemptive Bidding, and Termination Fees," VfS Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100493, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    6. Olivier Bos & Tom Truyts, 2021. "Auctions with signaling concerns," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(2), pages 420-448, May.
    7. Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2010. "Signaling in Tender Offer Games," FMG Discussion Papers dp655, Financial Markets Group.
    8. Berg, Aron, 2017. "Misvaluation and Financial Constraints: Method of Payment and Buyer Identity in Mergers & Acquisitions," Working Paper Series 1157, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    9. Iván Marinovic, 2017. "Delegated Bidding and the Allocative Effect of Accounting Rules," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(7), pages 2181-2196, July.
    10. Bos, Olivier & Gomez-Martinez, Francisco & Onderstal, Sander & Truyts, Tom, 2021. "Signalling in auctions: Experimental evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 448-469.
    11. Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2015. "Signalling to Dispersed Shareholders and Corporate Control," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(3), pages 922-962.
    12. Liu, Tingjun & Bernhardt, Dan, 2019. "Optimal equity auctions with two-dimensional types," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 184(C).
    13. Aktas, Nihat & Xu, Guosong & Yurtoglu, Burcin, 2018. "She is mine: Determinants and value effects of early announcements in takeovers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 180-202.
    14. Cho, Myeonghwan & Song, Joon, 2022. "Auctioning business licenses to engage in Cournot competition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 210(C).
    15. Jibang Wu & Ashwinkumar Badanidiyuru & Haifeng Xu, 2021. "Auctioning with Strategically Reticent Bidders," Papers 2109.04888,
    16. Bessler, Wolfgang & Schneck, Colin & Zimmermann, Jan, 2015. "Bidder contests in international mergers and acquisitions: The impact of toeholds, preemptive bidding, and termination fees," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 4-23.

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