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How Duration Between Trades of Underlying Securities Affects Option Prices

  • �lvaro Cartea
  • Thilo Meyer-Brandis

We propose a model for stock price dynamics that explicitly incorporates random waiting times between trades, also known as duration, and show how option prices can be calculated using this model. We use ultra-high-frequency data for blue-chip companies to motivate a particular choice of waiting-time distribution and then calibrate risk-neutral parameters from options data. We also show that the convexity commonly observed in implied volatilities may be explained by the presence of duration between trades. Furthermore, we find that, ceteris paribus, implied volatility decreases in the presence of longer durations, a result consistent with the findings of Engle (2000) and Dufour and Engle (2000) which demonstrates the relationship between levels of activity and volatility for stock prices. Finally, by directly employing information given by time-stamps of trades, our approach provides a direct link between the literature on stochastic time changes and business time (see Clark (1973)) and, at the same time, highlights the link between number and time of arrival of transactions with implied volatility and stochastic volatility models. Copyright 2010, Oxford University Press.

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Article provided by European Finance Association in its journal Review of Finance.

Volume (Year): 14 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 749-785

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Handle: RePEc:oup:revfin:v:14:y:2010:i:4:p:749-785
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  1. Tauchen, George E & Pitts, Mark, 1983. "The Price Variability-Volume Relationship on Speculative Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 485-505, March.
  2. Robert F. Engle & Jeffrey R. Russell, 1998. "Autoregressive Conditional Duration: A New Model for Irregularly Spaced Transaction Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1127-1162, September.
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  9. Geman, Hélyette & Carr, Peter & Madan, Dilip B. & Yor, Marc, 2003. "Stochastic Volatility for Levy Processes," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/1392, Paris Dauphine University.
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  12. Dufour, Alfonso & Engle, Robert F, 1999. "Time and the Price Impact of a Trade," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt62c0h04j, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  13. Peter Carr & Helyette Geman, 2002. "The Fine Structure of Asset Returns: An Empirical Investigation," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(2), pages 305-332, April.
  14. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
  15. Epps, Thomas W & Epps, Mary Lee, 1976. "The Stochastic Dependence of Security Price Changes and Transaction Volumes: Implications for the Mixture-of-Distributions Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(2), pages 305-21, March.
  16. Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen & Neil Shephard, 2001. "Non-Gaussian Ornstein-Uhlenbeck-based models and some of their uses in financial economics," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 63(2), pages 167-241.
  17. Jones, Charles M & Kaul, Gautam & Lipson, Marc L, 1994. "Transactions, Volume, and Volatility," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(4), pages 631-51.
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