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Competition, Monopoly, and Aftermarkets

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  • Michael Waldman

Abstract

Consider a durable goods producer that has the option of monopolizing an aftermarket such as repair for its own product. An important question is whether such monopolization reduces welfare? We show that the answer to this question is frequently no. In particular, we explore three models that illustrate various ways in which aftermarket monopolization can reduce inefficiencies and thus increase social welfare and frequently also consumer welfare. Our article shows that efficiency enhancing aftermarket monopolization may be much more common than previous literature suggests. (JEL K21, L12, L49) The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Yale University. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Waldman, 2010. "Competition, Monopoly, and Aftermarkets," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(1), pages 54-91, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jleorg:v:26:y:2010:i:1:p:54-91
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Joseph Farrell & Carl Shapiro, 1988. "Dynamic Competition with Switching Costs," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(1), pages 123-137, Spring.
    2. Paul Klemperer, 1987. "Markets with Consumer Switching Costs," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 102(2), pages 375-394.
    3. Bulow, Jeremy I, 1982. "Durable-Goods Monopolists," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(2), pages 314-332, April.
    4. Zhiqi Chen & Thomas W. Ross, 1998. "Orders to Supply as Substitutes for Commitments to Aftermarkets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(5), pages 1204-1224, November.
    5. Paul Klemperer, 1995. "Competition when Consumers have Switching Costs: An Overview with Applications to Industrial Organization, Macroeconomics, and International Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 515-539.
    6. Farrell, Joseph & Shapiro, Carl, 1989. "Optimal Contracts with Lock-In," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 51-68, March.
    7. Nancy L. Stokey, 1981. "Rational Expectations and Durable Goods Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(1), pages 112-128, Spring.
    8. Chen, Zhiqi & Ross, Thomas W, 1993. "Refusals to Deal, Price Discrimination, and Independent Service Organizations," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(4), pages 593-614, Winter.
    9. Igal Hendel & Alessandro Lizzeri, 1999. "Interfering with Secondary Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(1), pages 1-21, Spring.
    10. Waldman, Michael, 1997. "Eliminating the Market for Secondhand Goods: An Alternative Explanation for Leasing," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(1), pages 61-92, April.
    11. Hodaka Morita & Michael Waldman, 2010. "Competition, Monopoly Maintenance, and Consumer Switching Costs," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 230-255, February.
    12. Paul Klemperer, 1989. "Price Wars Caused by Switching Costs," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(3), pages 405-420.
    13. Coase, Ronald H, 1972. "Durability and Monopoly," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 143-149, April.
    14. Richard Schmalensee, 1974. "Market Structure, Durability, and Maintenance Effort," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(2), pages 277-287.
    15. Mallela, Parthasaradhi & Nahata, Babu, 1980. "Theory of Vertical Control with Variable Proportions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(5), pages 1009-1025, October.
    16. Zhiqi Chen & Thomas Ross & W. Stanbury, 1998. "Refusals to Deal and Aftermarkets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 13(1), pages 131-151, April.
    17. Su, Teddy T, 1975. "Durability of Consumption Goods Reconsidered," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(1), pages 148-157, March.
    18. Waldman, Michael, 1996. "Durable Goods Pricing When Quality Matters," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69(4), pages 489-510, October.
    19. Rust, John, 1986. "When Is It Optimal to Kill Off the Market for Used Durable Goods?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(1), pages 65-86, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bernard, Sophie, 2011. "Remanufacturing," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(3), pages 337-351.
    2. Laussel, Didier & Van Long, Ngo & Resende, Joana, 2015. "Network effects, aftermarkets and the Coase conjecture: A dynamic Markovian approach," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 84-96.
    3. Pio Baake, 2008. "Accidents, Liability Obligations and Monopolized Markets for Spare Parts: Profits and Social Welfare," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 782, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Luis Cabral, 2008. "Aftermarket Power and Basic Market Competition," Working Papers 08-20, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    5. Shastitko, A., 2012. "Competition on Aftermarkets: the Subject Matter and Policy Applications," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 16(4), pages 104-126.
    6. Yongmin Chen, 2014. "Refusal to Deal, Intellectual Property Rights, and Antitrust," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(3), pages 533-557.
    7. Hodaka Morita & Michael Waldman, 2010. "Competition, Monopoly Maintenance, and Consumer Switching Costs," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 230-255, February.
    8. repec:kap:revind:v:50:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11151-017-9571-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Gans, Joshua S., 2012. "Mobile application pricing," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 52-59.
    10. Laure Durand-Viel & Bertrand Villeneuve, 2016. "Strategic Capacity Investment under Hold-up Threats: The Role of Contract Length and Width," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(3), pages 313-339, June.
    11. Cabral, Luís, 2014. "Aftermarket power and foremarket competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 60-69.
    12. Ben O. Smith, 2013. "Piracy, Awareness and Welfare in a Required Aftermarket," 2013 Papers psm164, Job Market Papers.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • K21 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Antitrust Law
    • L12 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
    • L49 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Other

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