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The Impact of Immigration Enforcement on the U.S. Farming Sector


  • Genti Kostandini
  • Elton Mykerezi
  • Cesar Escalante


We examine the effects of local immigration enforcement efforts on U.S. agriculture in dozens of U.S. counties from 2002-2010 by using variations in the timing of adoption of 287(g) programs, which permit local police to enforce immigration law. Difference-in-differences models using microdata from the American Community Survey (2005-2010 waves) and county tabulations from the Census of Agriculture (1997, 2002, and 2007) yield robust evidence that county enforcement efforts have reduced immigrant presence in adopting jurisdictions. We also find evidence that wages of farm workers, patterns of farm labor use, output choices, and farm profitability may have been affected in a manner consistent with farm labor shortages.

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  • Genti Kostandini & Elton Mykerezi & Cesar Escalante, 2014. "The Impact of Immigration Enforcement on the U.S. Farming Sector," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 96(1), pages 172-192.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:96:y:2014:i:1:p:172-192.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Steven Zahniser & Tom Hertz & Peter Dixon & Maureen Rimmer, 2012. "Immigration Policy and its Possible Effects on U.S. Agriculture and the Market for Hired Farm Labor: A Simulation Analysis," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 94(2), pages 477-482.
    2. Stephen Devadoss & Jeff Luckstead, 2011. "Implications Of Immigration Policies For The U.S. Farm Sector And Workforce," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(3), pages 857-875, July.
    3. repec:ags:jloagb:260048 is not listed on IDEAS
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    1. repec:spr:jopoec:v:31:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s00148-017-0666-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. East, Chloe N. & Luck, Philip & Mansour, Hani & Velasquez, Andrea, 2018. "The Labor Market Effects of Immigration Enforcement," IZA Discussion Papers 11486, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Devadoss, Stephen & Luckstead, Jeff, 2017. "Immigration Policies and Farm Labor," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 258435, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    4. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Thitima Puttitanun, 2014. "Remittances and immigration enforcement," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-26, December.
    5. repec:spr:demogr:v:54:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s13524-017-0627-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. East, Chloe N. & Velasquez, Andrea, 2018. "The Effect of Increasing Immigration Enforcement on the Labor Supply of High-Skilled Citizen Women," IZA Discussion Papers 12029, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Julia Shu-Huah Wang & Neeraj Kaushal, 2018. "Health and Mental Health Effects of Local Immigration Enforcement," NBER Working Papers 24487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Ifft, Jennifer & Jodlowski, Margaret, 2016. "Is ICE Freezing US Agriculture? The Impact of Local Immigration Enforcement on Farm Profitability and Structure," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Boston, Massachusetts 235950, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    9. Maoyong Fan & Susan Gabbard & Anita Alves Pena & Jeffrey M. Perloff, 2015. "Why Do Fewer Agricultural Workers Migrate Now?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 97(3), pages 665-679.
    10. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Susan Pozo & Thitima Puttitanun, 2015. "Immigration Enforcement, Parent–Child Separations, and Intent to Remigrate by Central American Deportees," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 52(6), pages 1825-1851, December.
    11. Luo, Tianyuan & Escalante, Cesar, 2014. "Determinants of Occupational Changes of U.S. Migrant Farm Workers under Recessionary Times," 2014 Annual Meeting, February 1-4, 2014, Dallas, Texas 162415, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    12. Watson, Tara, 2013. "Enforcement and immigrant location choice," Working Papers 13-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    13. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Thitima Puttitanun, 2018. "Undocumented youth in limbo: the impact of America’s immigration enforcement policy on juvenile deportations," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 31(2), pages 597-626, April.
    14. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Arenas-Arroyo, Esther & Sevilla, Almudena, 2018. "Labor Market Impacts of States Issuing of Driving Licenses to Undocumented Immigrants," IZA Discussion Papers 12049, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Richards, Timothy J., 2018. "Immigration Reform and Farm Labor Markets," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274165, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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