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The Risks Of A Too Quick Euro Adoption By The Eu Member States. The Case Of Portugal


  • Cristian Stefan Ovidiu

    () (Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration)


In this article we present the risks faced by the new countries that have joined the European Union, and which also desire to adopt the euro currency as quickly as possible. We will analyze the existing literature regarding the ways these risks manifest themselves, depending on the economic conditions present in these countries. The risks are mostly caused by an incomplete fulfillment of the optimum currency area conditions, especially the ones regarding the synchronization of the business cycles, the existence of mitigation mechanisms in the case of asymmetric shocks, and to a lesser extent, the insufficient flexibility of the European labor markets. In addition, because there are different economic conditions between the countries that plan on introducing the euro currency and the ones that already had, mostly related to a lower economic development and lower prices, there are specific risks that affect the former countries. Moreover, the benefits of entering the EMU - greater monetary stability, reduced transaction costs, lower exchange rate volatility and a decrease of the interest rates - can in some specific cases become also costs. In order to quantify all these elements, we have constructed a case study of Portugal, which has entered the EMU in the first wave. We have determined that Portugal's experience after the euro introduction was a negative one, when compared with the previous period, because the convergence process did not actually happened, as expected. Not only that, but the economic differences between Portugal and the other EMU countries deepened, and the country's fiscal situation also deteriorated badly in all these years, up to the point where Portugal was forced to ask for external help. The case of Portugal is very important for the countries that are eager to adopt the common currency without first achieving a sustainable economic development, through increasing labor productivity and exports. It shows that fulfilling the nominal criteria and entering EMU must not be a declared goal, but just the last measure implemented after reducing the economic disparities and reaching a balanced economic development. Based on the existing realities from the Central and Eastern European states, different scenarios can be constructed that will take into account the way these risks influence the future economic environment, should these states were to decide accelerating the common currency adoption process.

Suggested Citation

  • Cristian Stefan Ovidiu, 2011. "The Risks Of A Too Quick Euro Adoption By The Eu Member States. The Case Of Portugal," Annals of Faculty of Economics, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1(2), pages 25-32, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ora:journl:v:1:y:2011:i:2:p:25-32

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Domenico Giannone & Michele Lenza & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2010. "Business Cycles in the Euro Area," NBER Chapters,in: Europe and the Euro, pages 141-167 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Kolasa, Marcin, 2014. "Real convergence and its illusions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 79-88.
    3. Raul Ramos & Jordi Suriach, 2004. "Shocking Aspects of European Enlargement," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(5), pages 36-57, September.
    4. Fagan, Gabriel & Gaspar, Ví­tor, 2007. "Adjusting to the euro," Working Paper Series 716, European Central Bank.
    5. David Barr & Francis Breedon & David Miles, 2003. "Life on the outside: economic conditions and prospects outside euroland," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 18(37), pages 573-613, October.
    6. Stanislava Janáèková, 2004. "Eurozone Expansion: Certain Risks for Countries Catching Up," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 6-44, March.
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    More about this item


    euro; risk; Portugal; adoption; EMU;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E63 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes


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