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Human Capital Convergence: Evidence from the Punjab


  • Uzma Afzal

    () (Centre for Research in Economics and Business (CREB), Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan.)


While the literature on economic growth provides mixed evidence on convergence across different countries and regions, a large number of studies point toward the widening income gap between rich and poor. In the development literature, a broader range of national welfare indicators beyond income per capita—health and education in particular—are considered important instruments for measuring progress in human development. This article examines education and other selective welfare indicators to determine if there has been unconditional and conditional convergence across the districts of Pakistani Punjab over the period 1961–2008. The study can be considered part of the growing literature that looks at growth theory in developing countries in the context of human capital. Thus far, few studies have examined human capital in the context of convergence, and Pakistan has not been studied in any depth up to now. The results of our empirical analysis show that over the last five decades, both unconditional and conditional convergence has taken place in literacy rates across Punjab, and that this has been accompanied by increased gender parity in educational enrolment levels and improved housing conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • Uzma Afzal, 2012. "Human Capital Convergence: Evidence from the Punjab," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 17(1), pages 45-61, Jan-June.
  • Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:17:y:2012:i:1:p:45-61

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Human capital; unconditional convergence; conditional convergence; Pakistan.;

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General


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