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Bizonytalanság és a jövedelmek újraelosztása iránti igény Magyarországon
[Uncertainty and the demand for redistribution in Hungary]

  • Molnár, György

    ()

  • Kapitány, Zsuzsa

    ()

Registered author(s):

    A munkaerő-piaci helyzet, a képzettség, bizonyos családszerkezeti összefüggések és a jövedelmi mobilitás a legfontosabbak azok közül az objektív tényezők közül, amely a jövedelem-újraelosztás iránti igényt meghatározzák. A munkanélküliek és kvázi-munkanélküliek, az alacsony képzettségűek újraelosztás iránti igénye - jövedelmüktől függetlenül - magasabb az átlagnál, a vállalkozóké, vezető beosztásúaké alacsonyabb. A tartósan lefelé irányuló jövedelmi mobilitás növeli az újraelosztás iránti igényt, a tartósan felfelé irányuló azonban egyáltalán nem csökkenti, sőt, bizonyos esetekben szintén növeli. Ennek kapcsán vizsgáljuk a tényleges és a szubjektív mobilitás szisztematikus eltérésének okait. Az újraelosztáshoz való viszonyt nem annyira a tényleges anyagi helyzet, hanem az anyagi ranglétrán elfoglalt pozíció szubjektív megítélése befolyásolja. 2002-ben a magyar társadalom jelentős többsége a középnél lejjebb sorolta magát, ami az újraelosztás igen magas támogatottságának egyik magyarázata lehet. Az életükkel elégedetlenek az átlagnál sokkal inkább újraelosztás-pártiak. Minél bizonytalanabb valaki - és ez a bizonytalanság elsősorban a munkanélküliségtől való félelemben nyilvánul meg -, annál inkább pártolja az újraelosztást. A jelennel és a jövővel kapcsolatban legbizonytalanabbak a leginkább csalódottak, egyben a gazdagokkal szembeni ellenérzések is náluk a legerősebbek. A jövedelmi mobilitás érzékelése helyzetfüggő, különösen a biztonság hiánya befolyásolja. Gazdaságpolitikai következtetésünk az, hogy az újraelosztás iránti igény csökkentése elsősorban a munkaerő-piaci bizonytalanság csökkentésével és a képzettségi szint emelésével, nem pedig a jövedelmek közvetlen emelésével érhető el. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) kód: D31, D63, D80, J62, I31, H50.

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    Article provided by Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation) in its journal Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences).

    Volume (Year): LIV (2007)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 201-232

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    Handle: RePEc:ksa:szemle:900
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