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Space, money, life-stage, and the allocation of time

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  • David Levinson

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Abstract

Allocation of time to various activities is known to be a function of various demographic, socio-economic, seasonal, and scheduling factors. This paper examines those variables through exploration of the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, which has been inverted to track activity durations. The data are examined in single and multi-variate contexts. Two key issues are considered. First, to what extent does activity duration influence travel duration after controlling for activity frequency. This is tested with a set of models explaining travel duration. The data show activity duration does have positive and significant effects on travel duration, supporting recent arguments in favor of activity based models. Second, which is a more important effect in explaining the large changes in travel and activity patterns over the past thirty years accompanied by the increase in female labor force participation, the loss of discretionary time due to work, the change in metropolitan location, or the rise in per capita income. To examine this second question more rigorously, a choice model is constructed which examines both the decision to undertake an activity and the share of time within a 24 hour budget allocated to several primary activities: home, work, shop, and other activities. The utility functions for the activities are comprised of demographic, socio-economic, temporal, and spatial factors. The data also suggest that income and location have modest effects on time allocation compared with the loss of discretionary time due to working.
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Suggested Citation

  • David Levinson, 1999. "Space, money, life-stage, and the allocation of time," Transportation, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 141-171, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:transp:v:26:y:1999:i:2:p:141-171
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1005175512892
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1023/A:1005175512892
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Golob, Thomas F. & McNally, Michael G., 1997. "A Model of Activity Participation Between Household Heads," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4dj8f1gg, University of California Transportation Center.
    2. Golob, Thomas F. & McNally, Michael G., 1997. "A model of activity participation and travel interactions between household heads," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 177-194, June.
    3. David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1995. "Activity, Travel, and the Allocation of Time," Working Papers 199505, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    4. David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1994. "The Rational Locator: Why Travel Times Have Remained Stable," Working Papers 199402, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    5. David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1995. "Temporal Variations on Allocation of Time," Working Papers 199501, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jianxi Feng & Martin Dijst & Bart Wissink & Jan Prillwitz, 2014. "Understanding Mode Choice in the Chinese Context: The Case of Nanjing Metropolitan Area," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 105(3), pages 315-330, July.
    2. Schwanen, Tim & Dijst, Martin, 2002. "Travel-time ratios for visits to the workplace: the relationship between commuting time and work duration," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 573-592, August.
    3. Raux, Charles & Ma, Tai-Yu & Joly, Iragaël & Kaufmann, Vincent & Cornelis, Eric & Ovtracht, Nicolas, 2011. "Travel and activity time allocation: An empirical comparison between eight cities in Europe," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 401-412, March.
    4. Chen, Cynthia, 2005. "Feasible Activity and Travel Time Allocations with a Discrete Choice Model: An Exploratory Study," Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Transportation Research Forum, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-15.
    5. Pinjari, Abdul Rawoof & Bhat, Chandra R. & Hensher, David A., 2009. "Residential self-selection effects in an activity time-use behavior model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 43(7), pages 729-748, August.
    6. Iragaël Joly, 2006. "The role of travel time budgets – Representation of a demand derived from activity participation," Post-Print halshs-00181431, HAL.
    7. Joly, I., 2011. "Test of the relation between travel and activities times : different representations of a demand derived from activity participation," Working Papers 201103, Grenoble Applied Economics Laboratory (GAEL).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    activity patterns; time use; transportation models; travel behavior; travel demand;

    JEL classification:

    • R40 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - General
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation

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