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Self-Employment Among Immigrants in Sweden -- An Analysis of Intragroup Differences

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  • Mats Hammarstedt

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Abstract

This paper examines intragroup differences in self-employment within different immigrant groups and the native population in Sweden with the help of 1990 Census data. Intragroup differences are observed among all the groups. The study shows that differences in self-employment rates between individuals with different educational attainment exist for some of the immigrant groups. For immigrants from Southern Europe and non-European immigrants as well as for natives, the propensity for self-employment is lower among individuals with higher education. Furthermore, the study also shows that there are intragroup differences defined by gender and point in time for immigration. Finally, the study observes small differences in self-employment earnings within the different immigrant groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Mats Hammarstedt, 2004. "Self-Employment Among Immigrants in Sweden -- An Analysis of Intragroup Differences," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 115-126, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:23:y:2004:i:2:p:115-126
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. "Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
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    5. George J. Borjas, 1986. "The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 485-506.
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    7. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, June.
    8. Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
    9. Cooper, Arnold C. & Gimeno-Gascon, F. Javier & Woo, Carolyn Y., 1994. "Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 371-395, September.
    10. Lindh, Thomas & Ohlsson, Henry, 1996. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains: Evidence from the Swedish Lottery," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(439), pages 1515-1526, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bird, Miriam & Wennberg, Karl, 2016. "Why family matters: The impact of family resources on immigrant entrepreneurs' exit from entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 687-704.
    2. Zara Daghbashyan & Björn Hårsman, 2014. "University choice and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 729-746, April.
    3. Lina Aldén & Mats Hammarstedt, 2016. "Discrimination in the Credit Market? Access to Financial Capital among Self-employed Immigrants," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 3-31, February.
    4. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Transmission of self-employment across immigrant generations: the importance of ethnic background and gender," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 555-577, December.
    5. Neville, François & Orser, Barbara & Riding, Allan & Jung, Owen, 2014. "Do young firms owned by recent immigrants outperform other young firms?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 55-71.
    6. Masurel, E., 2008. "Local shopkeepers’ associations and ethnic minority entrepreneurs," Serie Research Memoranda 0016, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    7. Gema Álvarez & Carlos Gradín & Mª Soledad Otero, 2013. "Self-Employment: Transition And Earnings Differential," Revista de Economia Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Estructura Economica y Economia Publica, vol. 21(2), pages 61-90, Autumn.
    8. Ettl, Kerstin & Welter, Friederike & Achtenhagen, Leona, 2016. ""Das 21. Jahrhundert ist weiblich": Unternehmerinnen in der Presse," IfM-Materialien 249, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    9. Henley, Andrew, 2009. "Switching Costs and Occupational Transition into Self-Employment," IZA Discussion Papers 3969, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Theodore Lianos & Anastasia Pseiridis, 2009. "On the occupational choices of return migrants," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 155-181, March.
    11. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 261-276, April.
    12. Ohlsson, Henrik & Broomé, Per & Bevelander, Pieter, 2010. "The Self-Employment of Immigrants and Natives in Sweden," IZA Discussion Papers 4976, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt & Shakir Hussain & Ghazi Shukur, 2013. "Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: a multilevel approach," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(3), pages 885-910, June.
    14. Lina Andersson, 2011. "Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(8), pages 900-922, November.
    15. Gema Álvarez & Carlos Gradín & M. Soledad Otero, 2009. "Self-employment in Spain: Transition and earnings differential," Working Papers 0907, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
    16. Xiaohua Yang & Elly Ho & Artemis Chang, 2012. "Integrating the resource-based view and transaction cost economics in immigrant business performance," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 753-772, September.
    17. Joan Martín-Montaner & Francisco Requena & Guadalupe Serrano, 2014. "International trade and migrant networks: Is It really about qualifications?," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 41(2 Year 20), pages 251-260, December.

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