Using real-time electricity data to estimate response to time-of-use and flat rates: an application to emissions
Using a generalized McFadden specification, we estimate the determinants of hourly response for the years 2006 through 2010 for all 16 standard retail customers who were on an optional real-time electricity rate offered by Duke Energy as of 2010, and provide a method to estimate how these customers would respond to time-of-use (TOU) and flat rates. We generalize the model to allow for inter-day response, as well as threshold prices, above which individual customer response may increase or decrease. With these inclusions, we find hourly elasticity for the group of customers to be as large as −0.7, larger than previous studies. We apply the method to examine a recent finding that time-differentiated rates could increase electric utility emissions. However, that result did not differentiate between real-time and TOU rates, and furthermore held energy use constant in comparing flat rates and time-differentiated rates. We perform a case study to examine emissions of SO 2 , NOx, Hg, and CO 2 based on predicted energy use changes as well as for an energy-neutral case for real-time, TOU and flat rates. Employing energy use predictions from the model, increased energy use results in increased emissions in almost all cases. For the energy-neutral case, time-differentiated rates increase CO 2 as compared to flat rates, and the TOU rate causes a larger increase than does real-time pricing. But both rates decrease other emissions in the majority of years, particularly SO 2 In addition, time-differentiated rates reduce NOx potency by shifting it to non-daylight hours when conditions for the formation of smog are less favorable. Our application leads to the conclusion that the effect of the rates on emissions must consider total energy use as well as the shift from peak to off-peak. Furthermore, the predictions require consideration of the generating mix at a more detailed level than was contained in previous studies. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 42 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 (October)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springer.com|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.springer.com/economics/industrial+organization/journal/11149/PS2|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Martin L. Weitzman, 1974.
"Prices vs. Quantities,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 41(4), pages 477-491.
- Severin Borenstein, 2006.
"Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability,"
NBER Working Papers
12524, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Severin Borenstein, 2007. "Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 111-130.
- Thomas Taylor & Peter Schwarz, 2000. "Advance notice of real-time electricity prices," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 28(4), pages 478-488, December.
- Peter M. Schwarz, 2005. "Multipollutant Efficiency Standards For Electricity Production," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 23(3), pages 341-356, 07.
- Thomas Taylor & Peter Schwarz & James Cochell, 2005. "24/7 Hourly Response to Electricity Real-Time Pricing with up to Eight Summers of Experience," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 235-262, 01.
- Hung-po Chao, 2011. "Demand response in wholesale electricity markets: the choice of customer baseline," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 68-88, February.
- Stephen P. Holland & Erin T. Mansur, 2007.
"Is Real-Time Pricing Green? The Environmental Impacts of Electricity Demand Variance,"
NBER Working Papers
13508, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stephen P. Holland & Erin T. Mansur, 2008. "Is Real-Time Pricing Green? The Environmental Impacts of Electricity Demand Variance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 550-561, August.
- Stephen P. Holland & Erin T. Mansur, 2006. "The Short-Run Effects of Time-Varying Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 127-156.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:regeco:v:42:y:2012:i:2:p:135-158. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.