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Trade and the Number of OCAs in the World

  • Michael Artis


  • Marion Kohler
  • Jacques Mélitz


This paper employs worldwide data on output and bilateral trade in order to identify optimum currency areas (OCAs) on a global basis. By retaining only two of the many criteria in the literature on OCAs, computer programming could serve to do the identification. The two chosen criteria relate to trade and the symmetry of shocks to output. Based on the first criterion, trade, some large continental OCAs emerge. Adding the second, symmetry, whittles down the size of these OCAs considerably. Nevertheless, some significant examples remain in the Americas, Europe and Asia, of which the European and the Asiatic are the most noteworthy. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

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Article provided by Springer in its journal Open Economies Review.

Volume (Year): 9 (1998)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 537-568

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Handle: RePEc:kap:openec:v:9:y:1998:i:1:p:537-568
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  1. Wei, S.J. & Frankel, J.A., 1992. "Yen Bloc or Dollar Bloc: Exchange Rate Policies of the East Asian Economies," Papers 92-08, University of Birmingham - International Financial Group.
  2. Agnès Bénassy-Quéré, 1997. "Optimal Pegs for Asian Currencies," Working Papers 1997-14, CEPII research center.
  3. Eichengreen, Barry & Bayoumi, Tamim, 1996. "Ever Closer to Heaven? An Optimum-Currency-Area Index for European Countries," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt5dt9501s, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  4. Artis, Michael J & Zhang, Wenda, 1997. "On Identifying the Core of EMU: An Exploration of Some Empirical Criteria," CEPR Discussion Papers 1689, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Artis, Michael J & Zhang, Wenda, 1995. "International Business Cycles and the ERM: Is there a European Business Cycle?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1191, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1997. "Is EMU more justifiable ex post than ex ante?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 753-760, April.
  7. Honohan, Patrick, 2000. "Miniblocs and Fringe Currencies of the EMU," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 15, pages 47-75.
  8. Hess, Gregory D & Shin, Kwanho, 1997. "International and Intranational Business Cycles," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 93-109, Autumn.
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