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Trade and the Number of OCAs in the World


  • Michael Artis


  • Marion Kohler
  • Jacques Mélitz



This paper employs worldwide data on output and bilateral trade in order to identify optimum currency areas (OCAs) on a global basis. By retaining only two of the many criteria in the literature on OCAs, computer programming could serve to do the identification. The two chosen criteria relate to trade and the symmetry of shocks to output. Based on the first criterion, trade, some large continental OCAs emerge. Adding the second, symmetry, whittles down the size of these OCAs considerably. Nevertheless, some significant examples remain in the Americas, Europe and Asia, of which the European and the Asiatic are the most noteworthy. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Artis & Marion Kohler & Jacques Mélitz, 1998. "Trade and the Number of OCAs in the World," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 537-568, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:openec:v:9:y:1998:i:1:p:537-568
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1008321005387

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Honohan, Patrick, 2000. "Miniblocs and Fringe Currencies of the EMU," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 15, pages 47-75.
    2. Tamim Bayoumi and Barry Eichengreen., 1996. "Ever Closer to Heaven? An Optimum-Currency-Area Index for European Countries," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C96-078, University of California at Berkeley.
    3. A. Bénassy-Quéré, 1997. "Optimal pegs for asian currencies," THEMA Working Papers 97-07, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    4. Artis, Michael J & Zhang, Wenda, 1997. "On Identifying the Core of EMU: An Exploration of Some Empirical Criteria," CEPR Discussion Papers 1689, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Artis, Michael J & Zhang, W, 1997. "International Business Cycles and the ERM: Is There a European Business Cycle?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(1), pages 1-16, January.
    6. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Shang-Jin Wei, 1994. "Yen Bloc or Dollar Bloc? Exchange Rate Policies of the East Asian Economies," NBER Chapters,in: Macroeconomic Linkage: Savings, Exchange Rates, and Capital Flows, NBER-EASE Volume 3, pages 295-333 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1997. "Is EMU more justifiable ex post than ex ante?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 753-760, April.
    8. Hess, Gregory D & Shin, Kwanho, 1997. "International and Intranational Business Cycles," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 93-109, Autumn.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michele Fratianni & Dominick Salvatore & Paolo Savona, 1998. "Ideas for the Future of the International Monetary System: Conclusions and Remarks," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 689-700, January.
    2. Shu-ki Tsang, 2002. "Optimum Currency Area for Mainland HCina and Hong Kong? Empirical Tests," Working Papers 162002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    3. Banik, Nilanjan & Biswas, Basudeb & Criddle, Keith R., 2009. "Optimum currency area in South Asia: A state space approach," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 502-510, June.
    4. Kearney, Colm, 1999. "The Asian Financial Crisis," Quarterly Economic Commentary: Special Articles, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), vol. 1999(1-Februar), pages 29-55.
    5. Joan Costa-Font & Montserrat Font-Vilalta, 2006. "A note on the feasibility of a monetary area in the East Asia," Asia Europe Journal, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 53-58, April.
    6. Dominick Salvatore, 1998. "International Monetary and Financial Arrangements: Present and Future," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 375-416, January.
    7. Kohler, Marion, 2004. "Competing coalitions in international monetary policy games," HWWA Discussion Papers 258, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
    8. Julius Horvath, 2004. "Optimum currency area theory: A selective review," Macroeconomics 0401014, EconWPA.
    9. Casimir Dadak, 2011. "Political Economy of the Euro Area Crisis," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 58(5), pages 593-604, December.
    10. Schor, Armand-Denis, 2000. "La théorie des zones monétaires optimales : l’optimum, le praticable, le crédible et le réel," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 76(4), pages 545-576, décembre.
    11. Dumitru, Ionut, 2009. "Adoptarea euro in Romania
      [Euro adoption in Romania]
      ," MPRA Paper 18612, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    optimal currency areas; trade; business cycles;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration


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