Paradoxes in integration theory
This paper presents a formal analysis of how global welfare is affected by changing tariff and subsidy rates. The discussion stresses three types of reform whereby, surprisingly, trade liberalization has the potential to reduce world welfare: a multilateral equi-proportionate reduction of tariffs and subsidies; a reduction of a tariff or subsidy rate which is not extreme; and the formation of a customs union. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992
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- Carsten Kowalczyk, 1990. "Welfare and Customs Unions," NBER Working Papers 3476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hatta, Tatsuo & Fukushima, Takashi, 1979. "The welfare effect of tariff rate reductions in a many country world," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 503-511, November.
- Fukushima, Takashi & Kim, Namdoo, 1989. "Welfare improving tariff changes : A case of many goods and countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3-4), pages 383-388, May.
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