IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/netspa/v20y2020i1d10.1007_s11067-019-09469-2.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Optimal Deployment of Electric Bicycle Sharing Stations: Model Formulation and Solution Technique

Author

Listed:
  • Zhiwei Chen

    (University of South Florida)

  • Yucong Hu

    (South China University of Technology)

  • Jutint Li

    (South China University of Technology)

  • Xing Wu

    (Lamar University)

Abstract

This paper studies the problem of deploying electric bicycle (e-bike) sharing stations and determining their capacities, i.e. the number of shared e-bikes and charging piles, considering travelers’ responses to the charging demands and different deployment schemes. Given a one-way station-based setting, we propose an e-bike sharing network where the generalized trip cost is measured as the sum of the delay cost at stations and the travel time en-route. To estimate the trip costs, we modeled the pick-up and drop-off e-bikes at each sharing station as two different queues affected by e-bikes’ charging demands, and described the traffic flow of shared e-bike on each route based on Greenshield’s model. Further, the e-bike sharing station deployment problem was then formulated as a bi-level programming model, taking into account the government’s and individual travelers’ profits. The uniqueness of solution was proved. For the purpose of solution approach, this bi-level model was then reformulated into a single-level mixed-integer programming model, and a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm was proposed to solve the single-level model. Numerical experiments were presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and solution technique. More importantly, through numerical experiments, further insights for designing an e-bike sharing system were examined and discussed: 1) sharing stations are bottlenecks in the e-bike sharing network, since the charging activities cause travelers large delay costs; 2) a well-designed quick-charging technology and reservation policy could be incorporated into e-bike sharing systems to reduce system costs; 3) the proposed hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm shows good solution quality and convergence performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhiwei Chen & Yucong Hu & Jutint Li & Xing Wu, 2020. "Optimal Deployment of Electric Bicycle Sharing Stations: Model Formulation and Solution Technique," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 99-136, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:netspa:v:20:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s11067-019-09469-2
    DOI: 10.1007/s11067-019-09469-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11067-019-09469-2
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11067-019-09469-2?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Elliot Fishman & Christopher Cherry, 2016. "E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 72-91, January.
    2. He, Fang & Wu, Di & Yin, Yafeng & Guan, Yongpei, 2013. "Optimal deployment of public charging stations for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 87-101.
    3. Li, Xiaopeng & Ma, Jiaqi & Cui, Jianxun & Ghiasi, Amir & Zhou, Fang, 2016. "Design framework of large-scale one-way electric vehicle sharing systems: A continuum approximation model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 21-45.
    4. George, David K. & Xia, Cathy H., 2011. "Fleet-sizing and service availability for a vehicle rental system via closed queueing networks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 211(1), pages 198-207, May.
    5. Wu, Xing & Dong, Jing & Lin, Zhenhong, 2014. "Cost analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using GPS-based longitudinal travel data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 206-217.
    6. Cherry, Christopher R. & Yang, Hongtai & Jones, Luke R. & He, Min, 2016. "Dynamics of electric bike ownership and use in Kunming, China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 127-135.
    7. Sang Nguyen & Clermont Dupuis, 1984. "An Efficient Method for Computing Traffic Equilibria in Networks with Asymmetric Transportation Costs," Transportation Science, INFORMS, vol. 18(2), pages 185-202, May.
    8. Yu Nie & Xing Wu & Tito Homem-de-Mello, 2012. "Optimal Path Problems with Second-Order Stochastic Dominance Constraints," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 561-587, December.
    9. Cherry, Christopher & Cervero, Robert, 2007. "Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike users in China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 247-257, May.
    10. Jia Shu & Mabel C. Chou & Qizhang Liu & Chung-Piaw Teo & I-Lin Wang, 2013. "Models for Effective Deployment and Redistribution of Bicycles Within Public Bicycle-Sharing Systems," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 61(6), pages 1346-1359, December.
    11. Zhao, Jinbao & Deng, Wei & Song, Yan, 2014. "Ridership and effectiveness of bikesharing: The effects of urban features and system characteristics on daily use and turnover rate of public bikes in China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 253-264.
    12. Ehsan Jafari & Stephen D. Boyles, 2017. "Multicriteria Stochastic Shortest Path Problem for Electric Vehicles," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 1043-1070, September.
    13. Nie, Yu (Marco) & Ghamami, Mehrnaz, 2013. "A corridor-centric approach to planning electric vehicle charging infrastructure," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 172-190.
    14. Wang, David Z.W. & Lo, Hong K., 2010. "Global optimum of the linearized network design problem with equilibrium flows," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 482-492, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Zhiwei & Li, Xiaopeng, 2021. "Unobserved heterogeneity in transportation equity analysis: Evidence from a bike-sharing system in southern Tampa," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    2. Franklin Oliveira & Dilan Nery & Daniel G. Costa & Ivanovitch Silva & Luciana Lima, 2021. "A Survey of Technologies and Recent Developments for Sustainable Smart Cycling," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(6), pages 1-28, March.
    3. Tomasz Bieliński & Łukasz Dopierała & Maciej Tarkowski & Agnieszka Ważna, 2020. "Lessons from Implementing a Metropolitan Electric Bike Sharing System," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(23), pages 1-21, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ziwen Ling & Christopher R. Cherry & John H. MacArthur & Jonathan X. Weinert, 2017. "Differences of Cycling Experiences and Perceptions between E-Bike and Bicycle Users in the United States," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(9), pages 1-18, September.
    2. Ton, Danique & Duives, Dorine, 2021. "Understanding long-term changes in commuter mode use of a pilot featuring free e-bike trials," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 134-144.
    3. Li, Xiaopeng & Ma, Jiaqi & Cui, Jianxun & Ghiasi, Amir & Zhou, Fang, 2016. "Design framework of large-scale one-way electric vehicle sharing systems: A continuum approximation model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 21-45.
    4. Yıldız, Barış & Olcaytu, Evren & Şen, Ahmet, 2019. "The urban recharging infrastructure design problem with stochastic demands and capacitated charging stations," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 22-44.
    5. Shen, Zuo-Jun Max & Feng, Bo & Mao, Chao & Ran, Lun, 2019. "Optimization models for electric vehicle service operations: A literature review," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 462-477.
    6. He, Fang & Yin, Yafeng & Lawphongpanich, Siriphong, 2014. "Network equilibrium models with battery electric vehicles," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 306-319.
    7. Xu, Min & Meng, Qiang & Liu, Kai & Yamamoto, Toshiyuki, 2017. "Joint charging mode and location choice model for battery electric vehicle users," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 68-86.
    8. Tang, Tie-Qiao & Luo, Xiao-Feng & Zhang, Jian & Chen, Liang, 2018. "Modeling electric bicycle’s lane-changing and retrograde behaviors," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 490(C), pages 1377-1386.
    9. Genikomsakis, Konstantinos N. & Galatoulas, Nikolaos-Fivos & Ioakimidis, Christos S., 2021. "Towards the development of a hotel-based e-bike rental service: Results from a stated preference survey and techno-economic analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 215(PA).
    10. Ou, Hui & Tang, Tie-Qiao & Rui, Ying-Xu & Zhou, Jie-Ming, 2018. "Electric bicycle management and control at a signalized intersection," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 512(C), pages 1000-1008.
    11. de Kruijf, Joost & van der Waerden, Peter & Feng, Tao & Böcker, Lars & van Lierop, Dea & Ettema, Dick & Dijst, Martin, 2021. "Integrated weather effects on e-cycling in daily commuting: A longitudinal evaluation of weather effects on e-cycling in the Netherlands," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 305-315.
    12. Cen, Xuekai & Lo, Hong K. & Li, Lu & Lee, Enoch, 2018. "Modeling electric vehicles adoption for urban commute trips," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 117(PA), pages 431-454.
    13. Gilbert Laporte & Frédéric Meunier & Roberto Wolfler Calvo, 2018. "Shared mobility systems: an updated survey," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 271(1), pages 105-126, December.
    14. Xu, Min & Meng, Qiang & Liu, Kai, 2017. "Network user equilibrium problems for the mixed battery electric vehicles and gasoline vehicles subject to battery swapping stations and road grade constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 138-166.
    15. Ou, Hui & Tang, Tie-Qiao & Rui, Ying-Xu & Zhou, Jie-Ming, 2018. "Modeling electric bicycle’s abnormal behavior at a signalized intersection," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 511(C), pages 218-231.
    16. Tomasz Bieliński & Łukasz Dopierała & Maciej Tarkowski & Agnieszka Ważna, 2020. "Lessons from Implementing a Metropolitan Electric Bike Sharing System," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(23), pages 1-21, November.
    17. Ke, Jintao & Cen, Xuekai & Yang, Hai & Chen, Xiqun & Ye, Jieping, 2019. "Modelling drivers’ working and recharging schedules in a ride-sourcing market with electric vehicles and gasoline vehicles," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 160-180.
    18. Zhu, Zhi-Hong & Gao, Zi-You & Zheng, Jian-Feng & Du, Hao-Ming, 2016. "Charging station location problem of plug-in electric vehicles," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 11-22.
    19. Stokkink, Patrick & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2021. "Predictive user-based relocation through incentives in one-way car-sharing systems," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 230-249.
    20. Nie, Yu (Marco) & Ghamami, Mehrnaz & Zockaie, Ali & Xiao, Feng, 2016. "Optimization of incentive polices for plug-in electric vehicles," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 103-123.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:netspa:v:20:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s11067-019-09469-2. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.