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Addressing Heterogeneous Preferences Using Parametric Extended Spike Models


  • Laura Nahuelhual-Muñoz


  • Maria Loureiro


  • John Loomis



Some public programs simultaneously provide a mix of non-rejectable public goods and public bads. Consequently, some individuals would pay for the program, while others might instead need to becompensated. In this paper we estimate twoparametric extended spike models that accountfor positive and negative preferences as wellas indifference for the public good. Weillustrate the models using data on valuationof prescribed burning of underbrush in forests,which reduces the risk of catastrophicwildfires but also produces smoke emissions(the public bad). We compare the two empiricalapproaches to estimate willingness to pay (WTP)for the program and contrast these results withthose obtained from modeling specificationsthat only account for non-negative preferences.Substantial differences in public net benefitswere found between the most flexible parametricextended spike model and the simple spike modelwhere negative responses were coded as zero anda standard binary logit of only positivebidders. The results from the extended spikemodels demonstrated that accounting forindifference and negative values towards thepublic good resulted in substantially lowerwillingness to pay estimates. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Suggested Citation

  • Laura Nahuelhual-Muñoz & Maria Loureiro & John Loomis, 2004. "Addressing Heterogeneous Preferences Using Parametric Extended Spike Models," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 27(3), pages 297-311, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:27:y:2004:i:3:p:297-311
    DOI: 10.1023/B:EARE.0000017655.38664.ce

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Clinch, J Peter & Murphy, Anthony, 2001. "Modelling Winners and Losers in Contingent Valuation of Public Goods: Appropriate Welfare Measures and Econometric Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(470), pages 420-443, April.
    2. Salvador Del Saz-Salazar & Leandro Garcia-Menendez, 2001. "Willingness to Pay for Environmental Improvements in a Large City Evidence from The Spike Model and From a Non-Parametric Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 20(2), pages 103-112, October.
    3. Werner, Megan, 1999. "Allowing for Zeros in Dichotomous-Choice Contingent-Valuation Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(4), pages 479-486, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. R. Martínez-Espiñeira, 2007. "‘Adopt a Hypothetical Pup’: A Count Data Approach to the Valuation of Wildlife," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 37(2), pages 335-360, June.
    2. repec:eee:eneeco:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:328-336 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:renene:v:116:y:2018:i:pa:p:97-108 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Loomis, John B. & Le, Hung Trong & Gonzales-Caban, Armando, 2005. "Testing transferability of willingness to pay for forest fire prevention among three states of California, Florida and Montana," Journal of Forest Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 125-140, December.
    5. Broberg, Thomas & Brännlund, Runar, 2006. "The value of preserving the four large predators in Sweden: Regional differences considered," Umeå Economic Studies 671, Umeå University, Department of Economics.


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