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Addressing Heterogeneous Preferences Using Parametric Extended Spike Models

  • Laura Nahuelhual-Muñoz


  • Maria Loureiro


  • John Loomis


Some public programs simultaneously provide a mix of non-rejectable public goods and public bads. Consequently, some individuals would pay for the program, while others might instead need to becompensated. In this paper we estimate twoparametric extended spike models that accountfor positive and negative preferences as wellas indifference for the public good. Weillustrate the models using data on valuationof prescribed burning of underbrush in forests,which reduces the risk of catastrophicwildfires but also produces smoke emissions(the public bad). We compare the two empiricalapproaches to estimate willingness to pay (WTP)for the program and contrast these results withthose obtained from modeling specificationsthat only account for non-negative preferences.Substantial differences in public net benefitswere found between the most flexible parametricextended spike model and the simple spike modelwhere negative responses were coded as zero anda standard binary logit of only positivebidders. The results from the extended spikemodels demonstrated that accounting forindifference and negative values towards thepublic good resulted in substantially lowerwillingness to pay estimates. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

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Article provided by European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists in its journal Environmental and Resource Economics.

Volume (Year): 27 (2004)
Issue (Month): 3 (March)
Pages: 297-311

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Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:27:y:2004:i:3:p:297-311
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  1. J. Peter Clinch & Anthony Murphy, 1998. "Modelling winners and losers in contingent valuation of public goods : appropriate welfare measures and econometric analysis," Working Papers 199812, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  2. Salvador Del Saz-Salazar & Leandro Garcia-Menendez, 2001. "Willingness to Pay for Environmental Improvements in a Large City Evidence from The Spike Model and From a Non-Parametric Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 20(2), pages 103-112, October.
  3. Timothy Park & John B. Loomis & Michael Creel, 1991. "Confidence Intervals for Evaluating Benefits Estimates from Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Studies," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 67(1), pages 64-73.
  4. Werner, Megan, 1999. "Allowing for Zeros in Dichotomous-Choice Contingent-Valuation Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(4), pages 479-86, October.
  5. Mark Yuying An & Roberto Ayala, 1996. "A Mixture Model of Willingness to Pay Distributions," Econometrics 9611002, EconWPA.
  6. Bengt Kristr�m, 1997. "Spike Models in Contingent Valuation," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 1013-1023.
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