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Accounting for Negative, Zero and Positive Willingness to Pay for Landscape Change in a National Park


  • Nick Hanley
  • Sergio Colombo
  • Bengt Kriström
  • Fiona Watson


"In contingent valuation, despite the fact that many externalities manifest themselves as costs to some and benefits to others, most studies restrict willingness to pay to being non-negative. In this paper, we investigate the impact of allowing for negative, zero and positive preferences for prospective changes in woodland cover in two UK national parks, the Lake District and the Trossachs. An extended spike model is used to accomplish this. The policy implications of not allowing for negative values in terms of aggregate benefits are also investigated, by comparing the extended spike model with a simple spike making use of only zero and positive bids, and a model which considers positive bids only. We find that ignoring negative values over-states the aggregate benefits of a woodland planting project by up to 44%." Copyright (c) 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2008 The Agricultural Economics Society.

Suggested Citation

  • Nick Hanley & Sergio Colombo & Bengt Kriström & Fiona Watson, 2009. "Accounting for Negative, Zero and Positive Willingness to Pay for Landscape Change in a National Park," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 1-16.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jageco:v:60:y:2009:i:1:p:1-16

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. List, John A. & Shogren, Jason F., 2002. "Calibration of Willingness-to-Accept," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 219-233, March.
    2. Kahneman, Daniel & Knetsch, Jack L., 1992. "Valuing public goods: The purchase of moral satisfaction," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 57-70, January.
    3. An, Mark Y. & Roberto Ayala, 1995. "A Mixture Model of Willingness to Pay Distributions," Working Papers 95-21, Duke University, Department of Economics.
    4. Jorgensen, Bradley S. & Syme, Geoffrey J., 2000. "Protest responses and willingness to pay: attitude toward paying for stormwater pollution abatement," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 251-265, May.
    5. Werner, Megan, 1999. "Allowing for Zeros in Dichotomous-Choice Contingent-Valuation Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(4), pages 479-486, October.
    6. Richard C. Ready & Ståle Navrud & RW. Richard Dubourg, 2001. "How Do Respondents with Uncertain Willingness to Pay Answer Contingent Valuation Questions?," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 77(3), pages 315-326.
    7. Hanemann, W Michael, 1991. "Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: How Much Can They Differ?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 635-647, June.
    8. Ian J. Bateman & Richard T. Carson & Brett Day & Michael Hanemann & Nick Hanley & Tannis Hett & Michael Jones-Lee & Graham Loomes, 2002. "Economic Valuation with Stated Preference Techniques," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2639.
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    Cited by:

    1. Johannes Reichl & Sylvia Frühwirth-Schnatter, 2012. "A censored random coefficients model for the detection of zero willingness to pay," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 259-281, June.
    2. Dikgang, Johane & Muchapondwa, Edwin, 2012. "The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San “bushmen” community," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 7-14.
    3. Ojea, Elena & Loureiro, Maria L., 2011. "Identifying the scope effect on a meta-analysis of biodiversity valuation studies," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 706-724, September.
    4. Broberg, Thomas & Kazukauskas, Andrius, 2014. "Inefficiencies in residential use of energy - A critical overview of literature and energy efficiency policies in EU and Sweden," CERE Working Papers 2014:7, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    5. Soon, Jan-Jan & Ahmad, Siti-Aznor, 2015. "Willingly or grudgingly? A meta-analysis on the willingness-to-pay for renewable energy use," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 877-887.
    6. Liao, Shu-Yi & Tseng, Wei-Chun & Chen, Chi-Chung, 2010. "Eliciting public preference for nuclear energy against the backdrop of global warming," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 7054-7069, November.
    7. repec:eee:eneeco:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:328-336 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández & Yaiza López-Sánchez, 2016. "Are Tourists Really Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Destinations?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(12), pages 1-20, November.
    9. Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl & Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark, 2010. "Preferences for site and environmental functions when selecting forthcoming national parks," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(7), pages 1532-1544, May.
    10. Kiran Krishnamurthy, Chandra & Kriström, Bengt, 2013. "Determinants of the price-premium for Green Energy: Evidence from an OECD cross-section," CERE Working Papers 2013:7, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics, revised 30 Jun 2014.

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