What Drives Pension Indexation in Turbulent Times? An Empirical Examination of Dutch Pension Funds
This paper identifies the key factors influencing indexation decisions in turbulent economic times within defined benefit plans using a unique panel dataset of 166 Dutch pension funds from 2007 to 2010. Key drivers of indexation are the funding ratio, inflation and real wage growth. The type of pension fund and the interest rate exposure are also statistically significant, although the latter effect is nonlinear. The asset allocation has no significant effect on the level of provided indexation as this is already captured by the funding ratio. We also examine the relation between policy ladders and the actual level of provided indexation. This study finds that a policy ladder with an upper limit equal to a 100 % real funding ratio is able to predict the actual level of indexation more accurately than a ladder with an upper limit based on a pension fund’s required nominal funding ratio. The latter tends to overestimate the actual level of indexation. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fama, Eugene F. & Schwert, G. William, 1977. "Asset returns and inflation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 115-146, November.
- Dirk Broeders & An Chen, 2008.
"Pension regulation and the market value of pension liabilities - a contingent claims analysis using Parisian options,"
DNB Working Papers
183, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- Broeders, Dirk & Chen, An, 2010. "Pension regulation and the market value of pension liabilities: A contingent claims analysis using Parisian options," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1201-1214, June.
- Ponds, E.H.M. & van Riel, B., 2009. "Sharing risk : The Netherlands' new approach to pensions," Other publications TiSEM dffdb2a2-5a3c-45e1-b166-c, School of Economics and Management.
- Jan de Dreu & J.A. Bikker, 2009.
"Pension fund sophistication and investment policy,"
09-13, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Maarten Rooij & Arjen Siegmann & Peter Vlaar, 2008.
"Market Valuation, Pension Fund Policy and Contribution Volatility,"
Springer, vol. 156(1), pages 73-93, March.
- Maarten van Rooij & Arjen Siegmann & Peter Vlaar, 2007. "Market Valuation, Pension Fund Policy and Contribution Volatility," DNB Working Papers 159, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- Roel Beetsma & Alessandro Bucciol, 2011.
"Differentiating Indexation in Dutch Pension Funds,"
Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 323-360, September.
- J.A. Bikker & T. Knaap & W.E. Romp, 2011.
"Real Pension Rights as a Control Mechanism for Pension Fund Solvency,"
11-15, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Jakob Bikker & Thijs Knaap & Ward Romp, 2011. "Real Pension Rights as a Control Mechanism for Pension Fund Solvency," DNB Working Papers 311, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- Dirk Broeders, 2010. "Valuation of Contingent Pension Liabilities and Guarantees Under Sponsor Default Risk," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 77(4), pages 911-934.
- Bikker, Jacob A. & De Dreu, Jan, 2009. "Operating costs of pension funds: the impact of scale, governance, and plan design," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 63-89, January.
- repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3129589 is not listed on IDEAS
- Leo de Haan & Jan Kakes, 2010.
"Momentum or Contrarian Investment Strategies:Evidence from Dutch institutional investors,"
DNB Working Papers
242, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- de Haan, Leo & Kakes, Jan, 2011. "Momentum or contrarian investment strategies: Evidence from Dutch institutional investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2245-2251, September.
- Ponds, Eduard H. M. & Riel, Bart Van, 2009. "Sharing risk: the Netherlands' new approach to pensions," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 91-105, January.
- Fama, Eugene F, 1981. "Stock Returns, Real Activity, Inflation, and Money," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 545-65, September.
- Bodie, Zvi, 1976. "Common Stocks as a Hedge against Inflation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 459-70, May.
- Jacob A. Bikker & Peter J.G. Vlaar, 2006. "Conditional Indexation in Defined Benefit Pension Plans," DNB Working Papers 086, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
- Cui, Jiajia & Jong, Frank De & Ponds, Eduard, 2011. "Intergenerational risk sharing within funded pension schemes," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 1-29, January.
- Gordon L Clark & Paul Bennett, 2001. "Dutch sector-wide supplementary pensions: fund governance, European competition policy, and the geography of finance," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 33(1), pages 27-48, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:decono:v:162:y:2014:i:1:p:41-70. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.