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Presales, Financing Constraints and Developers?Production Decisions

Listed author(s):
  • Su Han Chan


    (California State University-Fullerton 800 N State College Blvd, Fullerton, CA 92834)

  • Fang Fang


    (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics 777 Guoding Road, Shanghai, P.R. China, 200433)

  • Jing Yang


    (California State University-Fullerton 800 N State College Blvd, Fullerton, CA 92834)

This study explores the impacts a presale contract has on a developer’s pricing and production decisions in a game-theoretical framework. In an environment where developers have full capital market access, we find that both developers and buyers are indifferent between a presale and a spot sale method. This is true because a developer will adjust the presale price to compensate for the option value he gives to the buyer. However, in an environment with financing constraints, both developers and buyers are better off when a presale method is used. This is the case because the presale method solves the financing constraint by injecting equity into the development and, hence, reducing financing costs. The latter benefit can then be shared by both developers and buyers. Also, the additional equity the developers receive makes it more feasible for them to increase the size of their developments. This model prediction seems to describe well the real world situations seen in some of the property markets in Asia with nascent financial systems.

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Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal journal of Real Estate Research.

Volume (Year): 30 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 345-376

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Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:30:n:3:2008:p:345-376
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American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323

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Order Information: Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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  1. Rose Neng Lai & Ko Wang & Yuqing Zhou, 2004. "Sale before Completion of Development: Pricing and Strategy," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(2), pages 329-357, June.
  2. Rose Lai & Ko Wang & Jing Yang, 2007. "Stickiness of Rental Rates and Developers’ Option Exercise Strategies," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 159-188, January.
  3. David M. Harrison & Thomas G. Noordewier & K. Ramagopal, 2002. "Mortgage Terminations: The Role of Conditional Volatility," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 23(1/2), pages 89-110.
  4. Kam C. Chan & William G. Hardin III & Kartono Liano & Zheng Yu, 2008. "The Internationalization of Real Estate Research," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 30(1), pages 91-124.
  5. Charles K. Y. Leung & Garion C. K. Lau & Youngman C. F. Leong, 2002. "Testing Alternative Theories of the Property Price-Trading Volume Correlation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 23(3), pages 253-264.
  6. Ko Wang & Yuqing Zhou, 2000. "Overbuilding: A Game-Theoretic Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 493-522.
  7. Grenadier, Steven R., 1995. "Valuing lease contracts A real-options approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 297-331, July.
  8. Ko Wang & Yuqing Zhou & Su Han Chan & K. W. Chau, 2000. "Over-Confidence and Cycles in Real Estate Markets: Cases in Hong Kong and Asia," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 3(1), pages 93-108.
  9. Jeremy C. Stein, 1995. "Prices and Trading Volume in the Housing Market: A Model with Down-Payment Effects," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 379-406.
  10. Ko Wang & Yuqing Zhou, 2006. "Equilibrium Real Options Exercise Strategies with Multiple Players: The Case of Real Estate Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 34(1), pages 1-49, March.
  11. Ko Wang & Leslie Young & Yuqing Zhou, 2002. "Nondiscriminating Foreclosure and Voluntary Liquidating Costs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 959-985.
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