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Fringe Benefits Compensation of Real Estate Agents and Brokers


  • Daniel T. Winkler

    () (Bryan School of Business and Economics; University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412-5001)

  • W. Keener Hughen

    () (Belk College of Business; University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223)


Fringe benefits compensation offered by employers has grown rapidly over the past 50 years. Research in this area has been primarily limited to hourly and salaried employees. This study examines employer-based fringe benefits compensation of real estate agents and brokers. A model is developed that jointly estimates the income, hours worked, and fringe benefits compensation. The findings indicate that fringe benefits increase according to hours worked and the sales professional¡¦s contribution to firm revenue. Other important determinants include managerial duties, firm size and organizational form. For women, fringe benefits do not entice greater productivity (income); however, it does increase effort (hours worked).

Suggested Citation

  • Daniel T. Winkler & W. Keener Hughen, 2012. "Fringe Benefits Compensation of Real Estate Agents and Brokers," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 15(3), pages 253-281.
  • Handle: RePEc:ire:issued:v:15:n:03:2012:p:253-281

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. G. Stacy Sirmans & Philip G. Swicegood, 1997. "Determinants of Real Estate Licensee Income," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 14(2), pages 137-154.
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    5. Royalty, Anne Beeson & Abraham, Jean M., 2006. "Health insurance and labor market outcomes: Joint decision-making within households," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(8-9), pages 1561-1577, September.
    6. John D. Benjamin & Peter Chinloy & Daniel T. Winkler, 2009. "Labor Supply, Flexible Hours and Real Estate Agents," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 37(4), pages 747-767.
    7. J. Benjamin & P. Chinloy & G. Jud & D. Winkler, 2007. "Do Some People Work Harder than Others? Evidence from Real Estate Brokerage," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 95-110, July.
    8. Aaron Lowen & Paul Sicilian, 2009. "“Family-Friendly” Fringe Benefits and the Gender Wage Gap," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 101-119, June.
    9. Kimmel, Jean & Kniesner, Thomas J., 1998. "New evidence on labor supply:: Employment versus hours elasticities by sex and marital status," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 289-301, July.
    10. James R. Follain & Terry Lutes & David A. Meier, 1987. "Why Do Some Real Estate Salespeople Earn More Than Others?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 2(1), pages 73-81.
    11. Moffitt, Robert, 1984. "The Estimation of a Joint Wage-Hours Labor Supply Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 550-566, October.
    12. Blank, Rebecca M, 1988. "Simultaneously Modeling the Supply of Weeks and Hours of Work among Female Household Heads," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(2), pages 177-204, April.
    13. Harley Frazis & Mark A. Loewenstein, 2009. "How Responsive are Quits to Benefits?," Working Papers 426, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
    14. Perloff, Jeffrey M & Sickles, Robin C, 1987. "Union Wage, Hours, and Earnings Differentials in the Construction Industry," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(2), pages 174-210, April.
    15. Averett, Susan L & Hotchkiss, Julie L, 1995. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 276-280, May.
    16. Lundberg, Shelly J, 1985. "Tied Wage-Hours Offers and the Endogeneity of Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 405-410, August.
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    More about this item


    Fringe benefits; Compensation; Real estate agents;

    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services


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