IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/inm/ormnsc/v65y2019i9p3969-3987.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Strategic Consumers, Revenue Management, and the Design of Loyalty Programs

Author

Listed:
  • So Yeon Chun

    (McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057)

  • Anton Ovchinnikov

    (Smith School of Business, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; INSEAD, 77305 Fontainebleau, France)

Abstract

We study the interaction between the design of a premium-status loyalty program, revenue management, and strategic consumer behavior. Specifically, we consider a contemporaneous change where firms across several industries switch their loyalty programs from quantity-based toward spending-based designs. This change has been met with fierce opposition from the media and consumers. Building on the microfoundations of strategic, forward-looking, and status-seeking consumer behavior, we endogenize strategic consumer response to firms’ pricing and loyalty program design decisions, and we characterize conditions under which, by coordinating these decisions, firms can benefit from strategic consumer behavior. We further show that by switching to a spending-based design, firms can benefit from strategic behavior even more, under broader conditions, and in a Pareto-improving way. Finally, we also analyze combined designs, which utilize a combination of quantity and/or spending requirements, and show how they can be used to better manage the transition toward spending-based designs, possibly minimizing negative consumer reactions.

Suggested Citation

  • So Yeon Chun & Anton Ovchinnikov, 2019. "Strategic Consumers, Revenue Management, and the Design of Loyalty Programs," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 65(9), pages 3969-3987, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:65:y:2019:i:9:p:3969-3987
    DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.2018.3139
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2018.3139
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1287/mnsc.2018.3139?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gérard P. Cachon & Robert Swinney, 2009. "Purchasing, Pricing, and Quick Response in the Presence of Strategic Consumers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(3), pages 497-511, March.
    2. Nicholas Economides & Katja Seim & V. Brian Viard, 2008. "Quantifying the benefits of entry into local phone service," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(3), pages 699-730, September.
    3. Byung-Do Kim & Mengze Shi & Kannan Srinivasan, 2001. "Reward Programs and Tacit Collusion," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 20(2), pages 99-120, June.
    4. Qian Liu & Garrett J. van Ryzin, 2008. "Strategic Capacity Rationing to Induce Early Purchases," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(6), pages 1115-1131, June.
    5. Fuqiang Zhang & Renyu Zhang, 2018. "Trade-in Remanufacturing, Customer Purchasing Behavior, and Government Policy," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 20(4), pages 601-616, October.
    6. Xuanming Su, 2007. "Intertemporal Pricing with Strategic Customer Behavior," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(5), pages 726-741, May.
    7. Youngsoo Kim & Rahul Telang & William B. Vogt & Ramayya Krishnan, 2010. "An Empirical Analysis of Mobile Voice Service and SMS: A Structural Model," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(2), pages 234-252, February.
    8. Kinshuk Jerath & Serguei Netessine & Senthil K. Veeraraghavan, 2010. "Revenue Management with Strategic Customers: Last-Minute Selling and Opaque Selling," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(3), pages 430-448, March.
    9. Nikolay Osadchiy & Gustavo Vulcano, 2010. "Selling with Binding Reservations in the Presence of Strategic Consumers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(12), pages 2173-2190, December.
    10. Ran Kivetz & Oleg Urminsky & Yuhuang Zheng, 2006. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention," Natural Field Experiments 00658, The Field Experiments Website.
    11. Steven M. Shugan, 2005. "Brand Loyalty Programs: Are They Shams?," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 24(2), pages 185-193.
    12. Tang, Christopher S., 2010. "A review of marketing-operations interface models: From co-existence to coordination and collaboration," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1), pages 22-40, May.
    13. Anton Ovchinnikov & Béatrice Boulu-Reshef & Phillip E. Pfeifer, 2014. "Balancing Acquisition and Retention Spending for Firms with Limited Capacity," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(8), pages 2002-2019, August.
    14. Sam Aflaki & Ioana Popescu, 2014. "Managing Retention in Service Relationships," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(2), pages 415-433, February.
    15. Xuanming Su & Fuqiang Zhang, 2009. "On the Value of Commitment and Availability Guarantees When Selling to Strategic Consumers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(5), pages 713-726, May.
    16. Stephen M. Gilbert & Sreelata Jonnalagedda, 2011. "Durable Products, Time Inconsistency, and Lock-in," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(9), pages 1655-1670, September.
    17. Nathalie C. McCaughey & Christiaan Behrens, 2011. "Paying for Status? - The effect of frequent flier program member status on air fare choice," Monash Economics Working Papers 04-11, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    18. Simone Marinesi & Karan Girotra & Serguei Netessine, 2018. "The Operational Advantages of Threshold Discounting Offers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(6), pages 2690-2708, June.
    19. Yuri Levin & Jeff McGill & Mikhail Nediak, 2009. "Dynamic Pricing in the Presence of Strategic Consumers and Oligopolistic Competition," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(1), pages 32-46, January.
    20. Jun Li & Nelson Granados & Serguei Netessine, 2014. "Are Consumers Strategic? Structural Estimation from the Air-Travel Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(9), pages 2114-2137, September.
    21. Praveen K. Kopalle & Yacheng Sun & Scott A. Neslin & Baohong Sun & Vanitha Swaminathan, 2012. "The Joint Sales Impact of Frequency Reward and Customer Tier Components of Loyalty Programs," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(2), pages 216-235, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Yanyan & Mandler, Timo & Meyer-Waarden, Lars, 2021. "Three decades of research on loyalty programs: A literature review and future research agenda," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 179-197.
    2. Valeria Stourm & Scott A. Neslin & Eric T. Bradlow & Els Breugelmans & So Yeon Chun & Pedro Gardete & P. K. Kannan & Praveen Kopalle & Young-Hoon Park & David Restrepo Amariles & Raphael Thomadsen & Y, 2020. "Refocusing loyalty programs in the era of big data: a societal lens paradigm," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 405-418, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yossi Aviv & Mike Mingcheng Wei & Fuqiang Zhang, 2019. "Responsive Pricing of Fashion Products: The Effects of Demand Learning and Strategic Consumer Behavior," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 65(7), pages 2982-3000, July.
    2. Fei Gao & Xuanming Su, 2017. "Manufacturing & Service Operations Management," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 19(1), pages 84-98, February.
    3. Hattori, Keisuke & Zennyo, Yusuke, 2018. "Pricing and Diffusion of Durables with Network Externalities," MPRA Paper 86203, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Hattori, Keisuke & Zennyo, Yusuke, 2018. "Heterogeneous Consumer Expectations and Monopoly Pricing for Durables with Network Externalities," MPRA Paper 89893, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 08 Nov 2018.
    5. Ye, Taofeng & Yang, Huiqiang, 2020. "Price and Quality Management with Strategic Consumers: Whether to Introduce a High or Low Product Variant," Applied Mathematics and Computation, Elsevier, vol. 386(C).
    6. Dror Hermel & Benny Mantin, 2018. "Selling to strategic consumers: on the benefits of consumers’ valuation uncertainty and abundant inventory," Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(3), pages 146-165, June.
    7. José Correa & Ricardo Montoya & Charles Thraves, 2016. "Contingent Preannounced Pricing Policies with Strategic Consumers," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 64(1), pages 251-272, February.
    8. Ying‐Ju Chen & Leon Yang Chu, 2020. "Synchronizing pricing and replenishment to serve forward‐looking customers," Naval Research Logistics (NRL), John Wiley & Sons, vol. 67(5), pages 321-333, August.
    9. Adam J. Mersereau & Dan Zhang, 2012. "Markdown Pricing with Unknown Fraction of Strategic Customers," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 14(3), pages 355-370, July.
    10. Dong, Junfeng & Wu, Desheng Dash, 2019. "Two-period pricing and quick response with strategic customers," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 215(C), pages 165-173.
    11. Yanan Song & Xiaobo Zhao, 2017. "A newsvendor problem with boundedly rational strategic customers," International Journal of Production Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(1), pages 228-243, January.
    12. Yen-Ting Lin & Ali K. Parlaktürk & Jayashankar M. Swaminathan, 2018. "Are Strategic Customers Bad for a Supply Chain?," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 20(3), pages 481-497, July.
    13. René Caldentey & Ying Liu & Ilan Lobel, 2017. "Intertemporal Pricing Under Minimax Regret," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 65(1), pages 104-129, February.
    14. Arian Aflaki & Pnina Feldman & Robert Swinney, 2019. "Becoming Strategic: Endogenous Consumer Time Preferences and Multiperiod Pricing," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 68(4), pages 1116-1131, July.
    15. Liu, Jingchen & Zhai, Xin & Chen, Lihua, 2019. "Optimal pricing strategy under trade-in program in the presence of strategic consumers," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 1-17.
    16. Fei Gao & Xuanming Su, 2017. "Omnichannel Retail Operations with Buy-Online-and-Pick-up-in-Store," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(8), pages 2478-2492, August.
    17. Seyed Morteza Emadi & Bradley R. Staats, 2020. "A Structural Estimation Approach to Study Agent Attrition," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 66(9), pages 4071-4095, September.
    18. Ken Moon & Kostas Bimpikis & Haim Mendelson, 2018. "Randomized Markdowns and Online Monitoring," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(3), pages 1271-1290, March.
    19. Feng Yang & Junjun Kong & Minyue Jin, 2019. "Two-Period Pricing with Selling Effort in the Presence of Strategic Customers," Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research (APJOR), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 36(03), pages 1-21, June.
    20. René Caldentey & Ying Liu & Ilan Lobel, 2017. "Intertemporal Pricing Under Minimax Regret," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 65(1), pages 104-129, February.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:65:y:2019:i:9:p:3969-3987. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/inforea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Matthew Walls (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/inforea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.