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Human Capital, Social Capital, and Farmers’ Credit Availability in China: Based on the Analysis of the Ordered Probit and PSM Models


  • Jiaojiao Liu

    (College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China)

  • Gangren Zhang

    (College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    College of Business, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, China)

  • Jun Zhang

    (College of Business Administration, Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan 430205, China)

  • Chongguang Li

    (College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China)


Rural credit is very important to the increase of farmers’ income and the development of rural economy, and it has attracted wide attention from scholars. Many scholars have paid attention to the impact of social capital on farmers’ credit availability, but the research conclusions have not yet been unified. In addition, human capital is also one of the important factors that scholars pay attention to. However, the research mainly focuses on farmer education and pays less attention to their health. Based on the China Household Income Project (CHIP2013) database, we evaluated the impact of human capital (education and health of farmers) and social capital on the credit availability of farmers. To ensure the robustness of our results, we used both the ordered probit model and the propensity score matching (PSM) model to carry out the estimations. Therefore, the study not only improves the research framework of the impact of human capital on farmers’ credit availability, but also uses a more accurate method to estimate the net impact of social capital on farmers’ credit availability. The results showed that, firstly, in terms of human capital, farmers’ educational and health levels have a significant positive impact on their formal credit availability, but no significant impact on their informal credit availability. In particular, farmers with a high school education or above are more likely to obtain a formal loan. Secondly, in terms of social capital, interpersonal relationship capital and political relationship capital are beneficial for farmers obtaining loans from formal and informal channels. Organizational relationship capital only has a more significant positive impact on the informal credit availability of farmers. These results imply that formal financial institutions not only pay attention to farmers’ human capital but also their social capital to reduce the risk of lending. However, informal lenders, that is, relatives or friends, pay more attention to the social capital of farmers.

Suggested Citation

  • Jiaojiao Liu & Gangren Zhang & Jun Zhang & Chongguang Li, 2020. "Human Capital, Social Capital, and Farmers’ Credit Availability in China: Based on the Analysis of the Ordered Probit and PSM Models," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(4), pages 1-18, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:12:y:2020:i:4:p:1583-:d:322889

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Anh, Nguyen Tuan & Gan, Christopher & Anh, Dao Le Trang, 2022. "Multi-market credit rationing: The determinants of and impacts on farm performance in Vietnam," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 159-173.

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