IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v11y2019i24p6946-d294695.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

National Culture and Tax Avoidance of Multinational Corporations

Author

Listed:
  • Ji Seon Yoo

    (Division of Business Administration, Hoseo University, Chungcheongnam-do 31066, Korea)

  • Ye Ji Lee

    (Graduate School of Science in Taxation, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504, Korea)

Abstract

This study tests the role of national culture in tax avoidance by multinational corporations (MNCs). Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions are used to measure cultural differences across countries: uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, and power distance. The empirical results of the study imply that MNCs headquartered in countries with low uncertainty avoidance, low individualism, high masculinity, and low power distance engage in a higher level of tax avoidance than MNCs in countries with high uncertainty avoidance, high individualism, low masculinity, and high power distance. In addition, the cultural features of the parent company generally have a stronger influence on group-level tax avoidance than those of its subsidiaries. This study contributes to the literature by presenting empirical evidence of culture as a determinant of tax avoidance by MNCs.

Suggested Citation

  • Ji Seon Yoo & Ye Ji Lee, 2019. "National Culture and Tax Avoidance of Multinational Corporations," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(24), pages 1-28, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:24:p:6946-:d:294695
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/24/6946/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/24/6946/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Collins, J & Kemsley, D & Lang, M, 1998. "Cross-jurisdictional income shifting and earnings valuation," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 209-229.
    2. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
    3. Chen, Shuping & Chen, Xia & Cheng, Qiang & Shevlin, Terry, 2010. "Are family firms more tax aggressive than non-family firms?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 41-61, January.
    4. Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc, 2008. "International profit shifting within multinationals: A multi-country perspective," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1164-1182, June.
    5. Min Zhang & Wen Zhang & Sheng Zhang, 2016. "National culture and firm investment efficiency: international evidence," Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 1-21, March.
    6. Ronald G. Cummings & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Michael McKee & Benno Torgler, 2004. "Effects of Culture on Tax Compliance: A Cross Check of Experimental and Survey Evidence," CREMA Working Paper Series 2004-13, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    7. Ronald B. Davies & Julien Martin & Mathieu Parenti & Farid Toubal, 2018. "Knocking on Tax Haven’s Door: Multinational Firms and Transfer Pricing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 100(1), pages 120-134, March.
    8. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2006. "Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 23-48, Spring.
    9. Kelvin K. F. Law & Lillian F. Mills, 2015. "Taxes and Financial Constraints: Evidence from Linguistic Cues," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(4), pages 777-819, September.
    10. Robert Bird & Karie Davis-Nozemack, 2018. "Tax Avoidance as a Sustainability Problem," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 151(4), pages 1009-1025, September.
    11. Clausing, Kimberly A., 2003. "Tax-motivated transfer pricing and US intrafirm trade prices," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2207-2223, September.
    12. Richardson, Grant, 2008. "The relationship between culture and tax evasion across countries: Additional evidence and extensions," Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 67-78.
    13. Bame-Aldred, Charles W. & Cullen, John B. & Martin, Kelly D. & Parboteeah, K. Praveen, 2013. "National culture and firm-level tax evasion," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 390-396.
    14. Hanlon, Michelle & Slemrod, Joel, 2009. "What does tax aggressiveness signal? Evidence from stock price reactions to news about tax shelter involvement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-2), pages 126-141, February.
    15. Hussein, Mohamed E., 1996. "A comparative study of cultural influences on financial reporting in the U.S. and The Netherlands," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 95-120.
    16. Akhtar, Shumi & Akhtar, Farida & John, Kose & Wong, Su-Wen, 2019. "Multinationals' tax evasion: A financial and governance perspective," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 35-62.
    17. James R. Hines & Eric M. Rice, 1994. "Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(1), pages 149-182.
    18. Scott D. Dyreng & Jeffrey L. Hoopes & Jaron H. Wilde, 2016. "Public Pressure and Corporate Tax Behavior," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 147-186, March.
    19. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Alm, James & Torgler, Benno, 2006. "Culture differences and tax morale in the United States and in Europe," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 224-246, April.
    21. Klassen, K & Lang, M & Wolfson, M, 1993. "Geographic Income Shifting By Multinational-Corporations In Response To Tax Rate Changes," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31, pages 141-173.
    22. Doidge, Craig & Andrew Karolyi, G. & Stulz, Rene M., 2007. "Why do countries matter so much for corporate governance?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 1-39, October.
    23. Desai, Mihir A. & Hines, James R. Jr., 2002. "Expectations and Expatriations: Tracing the Causes and Consequences of Corporate Inversions," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 55(3), pages 409-440, September.
    24. Anca D. Cristea & Daniel X. Nguyen, 2016. "Transfer Pricing by Multinational Firms: New Evidence from Foreign Firm Ownerships," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 170-202, August.
    25. Mitchell A. Petersen, 2009. "Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 435-480, January.
    26. Gregg, Phillip M. & Banks, Arthur S., 1965. "Dimensions of Political Systems: Factor Analysis of A Cross-Polity Survey," American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 59(3), pages 602-614, September.
    27. Hannu Tanninen, 1999. "Income inequality, government expenditures and growth," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(9), pages 1109-1117.
    28. Gupta, Sanjay & Newberry, Kaye, 1997. "Determinants of the variability in corporate effective tax rates: Evidence from longitudinal data," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-34.
    29. Jacob, J, 1996. "Taxes and transfer pricing: Income shifting and the volume of intrafirm transfers," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 301-312.
    30. T. J. Atwood & Christina Lewellen, 2019. "The Complementarity between Tax Avoidance and Manager Diversion: Evidence from Tax Haven Firms," Contemporary Accounting Research, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 36(1), pages 259-294, March.
    31. Kenneth J. Klassen & Stacie Kelley Laplante, 2012. "The Effect of Foreign Reinvestment and Financial Reporting Incentives on Cross†Jurisdictional Income Shifting," Contemporary Accounting Research, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 29(3), pages 928-955, September.
    32. Mills, Lillian F. & Newberry, Kaye J., 2004. "Do Foreign Multinationals’ Tax Incentives Influence Their U.S. Income Reporting and Debt Policy?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 57(1), pages 89-107, March.
    33. Clotfelter, Charles T, 1983. "Tax Evasion and Tax Rates: An Analysis of Individual Returns," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 363-373, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Tânia Menezes Montenegro, 2021. "Tax Evasion, Corporate Social Responsibility and National Governance: A Country-Level Study," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(20), pages 1-19, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sebastian Beer & Ruud de Mooij & Li Liu, 2020. "International Corporate Tax Avoidance: A Review Of The Channels, Magnitudes, And Blind Spots," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 660-688, July.
    2. Hasan, Iftekhar & Karavitis, Panagiotis & Kazakis, Pantelis & Leung, Woon Sau, 2019. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Shifting," MPRA Paper 91580, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Taylor, Grantley & Richardson, Grant, 2012. "International Corporate Tax Avoidance Practices: Evidence from Australian Firms," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 469-496.
    4. Hanlon, Michelle & Heitzman, Shane, 2010. "A review of tax research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 127-178, December.
    5. Lee, Ye Ji, 2021. "The effects of analysts’ tax expense forecast accuracy on corporate tax avoidance: An international analysis," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2).
    6. Michael Overesch & Sabine Schenkelberg & Georg Wamser, 2018. "Do US Firms Pay Less Tax than their European Peers? On Firm Characteristics, Profit Shifting Opportunities, and Tax Legislation as Determinants of Tax Differentials," CESifo Working Paper Series 6960, CESifo.
    7. Cristi A. Gleason & Sascha Kieback & Martin Thomsen & Christoph Watrin, 2021. "Monitoring or payroll maximization? What happens when workers enter the boardroom?," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 1046-1087, September.
    8. My Nguyen & Justin Hung Nguyen, 2020. "Economic policy uncertainty and firm tax avoidance," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 60(4), pages 3935-3978, December.
    9. Lisa De Simone & Lillian F. Mills & Bridget Stomberg, 2019. "Using IRS data to identify income shifting to foreign affiliates," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 694-730, June.
    10. Overesch Michael, 2016. "Steuervermeidung multinationaler Unternehmen," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 17(2), pages 129-143, July.
    11. Albertus, James F. & Glover, Brent & Levine, Oliver, 2019. "Heads I win, tails you lose: Asymmetric taxes, risk taking, and innovation," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 24-40.
    12. Cooper, Maggie & Nguyen, Quyen T.K., 2020. "Multinational enterprises and corporate tax planning: A review of literature and suggestions for a future research agenda," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(3).
    13. Thomsen, Martin & Watrin, Christoph, 2018. "Tax avoidance over time: A comparison of European and U.S. firms," Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 40-63.
    14. Arnt Ove Hopland & Petro Lisowsky & Mohammed Mardan & Dirk Schindler, 2014. "Income Shifting under Losses," CESifo Working Paper Series 5130, CESifo.
    15. Argilés-Bosch, Josep M. & Somoza, Antonio & Ravenda, Diego & García-Blandón, Josep, 2020. "An empirical examination of the influence of e-commerce on tax avoidance in Europe," Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    16. Kooyul Jung & Boyoung Kim & Byungmo Kim, 2009. "Tax Motivated Income Shifting and Korean Business Groups (Chaebol)," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(5-6), pages 552-586.
    17. Müller, Raphael & Spengel, Christoph & Vay, Heiko, 2020. "On the determinants and effects of corporate tax transparency: Review of an emerging literature," ZEW Discussion Papers 20-063, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    18. Cortes, Felipe & Gomes, Armando & Gopalan, Radhakrishnan, 2021. "Corporate Inversions and Governance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    19. Cooper, Maggie & Nguyen, Quyen T.K., 2019. "Understanding the interaction of motivation and opportunity for tax planning inside US multinationals: A qualitative study," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 54(6), pages 1-1.
    20. Taylor, Grantley & Richardson, Grant, 2013. "The determinants of thinly capitalized tax avoidance structures: Evidence from Australian firms," Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 12-25.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:24:p:6946-:d:294695. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.