IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v10y2018i8p2870-d163469.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Impact of Electric Vehicle Demand and Battery Recycling on Price Dynamics of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials: A Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Jung Youn Mo

    () (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Sejong 30147, Korea)

  • Wooyoung Jeon

    () (Department of Economics, Chonnam National University, Kwangju 61186, Korea)

Abstract

The recent rise in demand for electric vehicles (EV) and energy storage supporting power systems has increased the demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIB), and it is expected to be more significant in near future. However, materials for LIB, such as lithium and cobalt, may face limited supply due to oligopolistic market characteristics, and this can have a significant impact on prices of LIB materials. This paper examines the dynamics of LIB raw material prices (cobalt, lithium, nickel, and manganese prices) with EV demand using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) method. The result shows that the EV demand is important in short-run dynamics of cobalt and lithium prices, which indicates that the recent increase in lithium and cobalt prices has been caused by increase in EV demand. In the long-run equilibrium, lithium and nickel prices move inversely with cobalt prices. The impulse response results confirm that EV demand has an immediate positive effect on cobalt price, and the effect maintains over two years. On the other hand, the EV demand shock to nickel, lithium, and manganese prices is relatively small. This study also analyses the impact of recycling policy of LIB on material prices. Finally, the paper discusses the policy implications for stabilizing material prices of LIB.

Suggested Citation

  • Jung Youn Mo & Wooyoung Jeon, 2018. "The Impact of Electric Vehicle Demand and Battery Recycling on Price Dynamics of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials: A Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(8), pages 1-15, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:8:p:2870-:d:163469
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/8/2870/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/8/2870/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dooley, Gillian & Lenihan, Helena, 2005. "An assessment of time series methods in metal price forecasting," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 208-217, September.
    2. Rossen, Anja, 2015. "What are metal prices like? Co-movement, price cycles and long-run trends," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 255-276.
    3. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Hacihasanoglu, Erk, 2009. "World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5557-5566, December.
    4. Akram, Q. Farooq, 2009. "Commodity prices, interest rates and the dollar," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 838-851, November.
    5. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
    6. Davutyan, Nurhan & Roberts, Mark C., 1994. "Cyclicality in metal prices," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 49-57, March.
    7. Benjamin R. Auer, 2015. "Superstitious seasonality in precious metals markets? Evidence from GARCH models with time-varying skewness and kurtosis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(27), pages 2844-2859, June.
    8. Carlos J. Pereira Freitas & Patrícia Pereira Da Silva, 2013. "Evaluation of dynamic pass-through of carbon prices into electricity prices - a cointegrated VECM analysis," International Journal of Public Policy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 9(1/2), pages 65-85.
    9. Sadorsky, Perry, 2000. "The empirical relationship between energy futures prices and exchange rates," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 253-266, April.
    10. Sari, Ramazan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Soytas, Ugur, 2010. "Dynamics of oil price, precious metal prices, and exchange rate," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 351-362, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jie Yang & Fu Gu & Jianfeng Guo & Bin Chen, 2019. "Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Mobile Power Banks with Lithium-Ion Battery and Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(19), pages 1-24, September.
    2. Guangwen Zhang & Zhongxing Du & Yaqun He & Haifeng Wang & Weining Xie & Tao Zhang, 2019. "A Sustainable Process for the Recovery of Anode and Cathode Materials Derived from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(8), pages 1-11, April.
    3. Shule Li & Jingjing Yan & Qiuming Pei & Jinghua Sha & Siyu Mou & Yong Xiao, 2019. "Risk Identification and Evaluation of the Long-term Supply of Manganese Mines in China Based on the VW-BGR Method," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(9), pages 1-23, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    lithium ion battery; lithium price; cobalt price; electric vehicle demand; battery recycling; granger causality; VECM;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:8:p:2870-:d:163469. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.