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Conceptualizing Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment through Empowerment Evaluation in Estonian Communities


  • Anu Kasmel

    () (Institute of Political Science and Governance, University of Tallinn, Narva mnt. 10-120, Tallinn, Estonia
    Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9-10, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark)

  • Pernille Tanggaard

    () (Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Vej 9-10, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark)


The importance of community empowerment has been strongly emphasized in health promotion publications in Western societies. Only a few studies exist to highlight the empowerment processes in countries in transition in Eastern Europe. A multi-stage study was designed to develop a context-specific survey instrument appropriate for evaluating the changes in the community empowerment process within the context of health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. The current study comprises the first stage, which aims to identify and systematize empowering domains and activities perceived by community members during the empowerment evaluation process. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with sixteen participants from three health promotion programs. Purposive sampling was used, and data were analyzed using constant comparison. The findings suggest that there are four key organizational domains that characterize the community empowerment process in Rapla: activation of the community, competence development of the community, program management development, and creation of a supportive environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Anu Kasmel & Pernille Tanggaard, 2011. "Conceptualizing Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment through Empowerment Evaluation in Estonian Communities," Societies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 1(1), pages 1-27, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsoctx:v:1:y:2011:i:1:p:3-29:d:12836

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Makara, Peter, 1994. "Policy implications of differential health status in East and West Europe. The case of Hungary," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1295-1302, November.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10510 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Pearsol, James A., 1987. "Justifying conclusions in naturalistic evaluations: An interpretive perspective," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 335-341, January.
    4. Janssens, Wendy, 2010. "Women's Empowerment and the Creation of Social Capital in Indian Villages," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 974-988, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jenni Hyvärinen & Marita Vos, 2015. "Developing a Conceptual Framework for Investigating Communication Supporting Community Resilience," Societies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(3), pages 1-15, July.

    More about this item


    community empowerment; evaluation; Estonia; Eastern Europe;

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
    • P - Economic Systems
    • P0 - Economic Systems - - General
    • P1 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies
    • P3 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
    • P4 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems
    • P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics


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