IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jscscx/v4y2015i4p1185-1206d59663.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context

Author

Listed:
  • Maria Letizia Zanier

    () (Department of Political Science, Communication and International Relations, University of Macerata, Via Don Minzoni, 22/A–62100 Macerata, Italy
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

  • Isabella Crespi

    () (Department of Education, Cultural Heritage and Tourism, University of Macerata, P.le Bertelli, 1–62100 Macerata, Italy
    These authors contributed equally to this work.)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous) significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria Letizia Zanier & Isabella Crespi, 2015. "Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-22, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jscscx:v:4:y:2015:i:4:p:1185-1206:d:59663
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/4/4/1185/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/4/4/1185/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Marcella Corsi & Manuela Samek Lodovici, 2013. "Active Ageing and Gender Equality," Working Papers CEB 13-004, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. Flavia Coda Moscarola & Margherita Borella, 2015. "The 2011 Pension Reform in Italy and its Effects on Current and Future Retirees," CeRP Working Papers 151, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
    3. Stefani Scherer & Emilio Reyneri, 2008. "The growth of female employment in Italy: structural versus cultural factors," Stato e mercato, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 183-216.
    4. Bonsang, Eric, 2009. "Does informal care from children to their elderly parents substitute for formal care in Europe?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 143-154, January.
    5. Even, William E & Macpherson, David A, 1990. "The Gender Gap in Pensions and Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 259-265, May.
    6. Jongkyun Choi, 2006. "The Role of Derived Rights for Old-age Income Security of Women," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 43, OECD Publishing.
    7. Steven J. Haider & Alison Jacknowitz & Robert F. Schoeni, 2003. "The Economic Status of Elderly Divorced Women," Working Papers wp046, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
    8. Van Vliet, Olaf & Been, Jim & Caminada, Koen & Goudswaard, Kees, 2011. "Pension reform and income inequality among the elderly in 15 European countries," MPRA Paper 32940, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Erika K. Palmer, 2017. "Structural Disadvantage: Evidence of Gender Disparities in the Norwegian Pension System," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(1), pages 1-15, February.
    2. Erika Palmer, 2018. "The Heavy Cost of Care: Systemic Challenges in Norwegian Work Absenteeism," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(6), pages 1-17, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    old women; gender gap; aging; work-family balance; welfare state; pensions policies; Italy;

    JEL classification:

    • A - General Economics and Teaching
    • B - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology
    • N - Economic History
    • P - Economic Systems
    • Y80 - Miscellaneous Categories - - Related Disciplines - - - Related Disciplines
    • Z00 - Other Special Topics - - General - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jscscx:v:4:y:2015:i:4:p:1185-1206:d:59663. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.