IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Perception, Reaction, and Future Development of the Influence of COVID-19 on the Hospitality and Tourism Industry in China


  • Lina Zhong

    (Institute for Big Data Research in Tourism, School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100020, China)

  • Sunny Sun

    (College of Asia Pacific Studies, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu, Oita 874–8577, Japan)

  • Rob Law

    (Asia-Pacific Academy of Economics and Management, Department of Integrated Resort and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau 999078, China)

  • Xiaonan Li

    (Institute for Big Data Research in Tourism, School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100020, China)

  • Liyu Yang

    (Institute for Big Data Research in Tourism, School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100020, China)


The present study examined the perception, reaction (i.e., possible measures), and future development from the perspectives of hotel and tourism practitioners and experts to investigate the influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (i.e., COVID-19) on the hospitality and tourism industry in China. After conducting 58 in-depth interviews among hotel and tourism practitioners and experts, feasible and practical measures were proposed to reduce such influence and predict the future development of China’s hospitality and tourism industry. Findings indicate that the influence of COVID-19 on the industry is perceived mainly through the pandemic’s economic and social effects. Possible measures that can be adopted for the recovery of China’s hospitality and tourism industry include the following aspects: government financial support, employee relationship management and electronic (e)-training, business marketing management, and industry co-operation network. A Perception-Reaction-Predication (PRP) crisis model is also proposed.

Suggested Citation

  • Lina Zhong & Sunny Sun & Rob Law & Xiaonan Li & Liyu Yang, 2022. "Perception, Reaction, and Future Development of the Influence of COVID-19 on the Hospitality and Tourism Industry in China," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(2), pages 1-19, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:19:y:2022:i:2:p:991-:d:725951

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Breitsohl, Jan & Garrod, Brian, 2016. "Assessing tourists' cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions to an unethical destination incident," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 209-220.
    2. Grace O. M. Lee & Malcolm Warner, 2006. "Human Resources, Labour Markets and Unemployment: The Impact of the SARS Epidemic on the Service Sector in Singapore," Asia Pacific Business Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 507-527, October.
    3. Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard & Smith, Richard David, 2008. "The economic impact of SARS: How does the reality match the predictions?," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 110-120, October.
    4. Wen Hai & Zhong Zhao & Jian Wang & Zhen-Gang Hou, 2004. "The Short-Term Impact of SARS on the Chinese Economy," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 3(1), pages 57-61.
    5. Nadeem Akhtar & Nohman Khan & Muhammad Mahroof Khan & Shagufta Ashraf & Muhammad Saim Hashmi & Muhammad Muddassar Khan & Sanil S. Hishan, 2021. "Post-COVID 19 Tourism: Will Digital Tourism Replace Mass Tourism?," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(10), pages 1-18, May.
    6. Škare, Marinko & Soriano, Domingo Riberio & Porada-Rochoń, Małgorzata, 2021. "Impact of COVID-19 on the travel and tourism industry," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 163(C).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Chunhui Zheng & Jia Zhang & Lili Qian & Yuling Zhang, 2022. "Risk, Obligation, and Public Noncompliance with Mobility Directives in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(18), pages 1-20, September.
    2. Ion Popa & Simona Cătălina Ștefan & Ana Alexandra Olariu & Ștefan Cătălin Popa & Cătălina Florentina Popa, 2022. "Modelling the COVID-19 Pandemic Effects on Employees’ Health and Performance: A PLS-SEM Mediation Approach," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(3), pages 1-17, February.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Anirudh Shingal & Prachi Agarwal, 2020. "How did trade in GVC-based products respond to previous health shocks? Lessons for COVID-19," RSCAS Working Papers 2020/68, European University Institute.
    2. Li, Tao & Rong, Lili & Zhang, Anming, 2021. "Assessing regional risk of COVID-19 infection from Wuhan via high-speed rail," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 226-238.
    3. Verikios, George, 2017. "The Importance of Periodicity in Modelling Infectious Disease Outbreaks," Conference papers 332907, Purdue University, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Global Trade Analysis Project.
    4. Zainudin, Ahmad Danial & Mohamad, Azhar, 2021. "Financial contagion in the futures markets amidst global geo-economic events," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 288-308.
    5. Yu, Zhen & Li, Yuankun & Xie, Xubin, 2021. "Long-term trade impact of epidemic outbreaks: Is it V-shaped?," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 16-40.
    6. Duan, Hongbo & Bao, Qin & Tian, Kailan & Wang, Shouyang & Yang, Cuihong & Cai, Zongwu, 2021. "The hit of the novel coronavirus outbreak to China's economy," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    7. Satoshi Tanaka, 2022. "Economic Impacts of SARS/MERS/COVID‐19 in Asian Countries," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 17(1), pages 41-61, January.
    8. Verikios, George, 2020. "The dynamic effects of infectious disease outbreaks: the case of pandemic influenza and human coronavirus," MPRA Paper 104434, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Gian Maria Campedelli & Alberto Aziani & Serena Favarin, 2020. "Exploring the Effects of COVID-19 Containment Policies on Crime: An Empirical Analysis of the Short-term Aftermath in Los Angeles," Papers 2003.11021,, revised Oct 2020.
    10. George Verikios & Maura Sullivan & Pane Stojanovski & James Giesecke & Gordon Woo, 2016. "Assessing Regional Risks From Pandemic Influenza: A Scenario Analysis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(8), pages 1225-1255, August.
    11. Haoyu Wang & Yishan Zhang & Yingying Qin & Chao Chen & Beason Richard, 2022. "The Economic Impact of the SARS Epidemic with Related Interventions in China," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(20), pages 1-17, October.
    12. Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, 2021. "Pandemic Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 20401.
    13. Miguel-Ángel García-Madurga & Miguel-Ángel Esteban-Navarro & Tamara Morte-Nadal, 2021. "CoVid Key Figures and New Challenges in the HoReCa Sector: The Way towards a New Supply-Chain," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(12), pages 1-19, June.
    14. Fang, Guanfu & Feng, Jin, 2021. "Is the 2003 SARS epidemic over? Long-term effects of epidemic exposure on mortality among older adults," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    15. de Palma, André & Vosough, Shaghayegh & Liao, Feixiong, 2022. "An overview of effects of COVID-19 on mobility and lifestyle: 18 months since the outbreak," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 372-397.
    16. Marc Jim Mariano & George Verikios, 2022. "Understanding the Effects of Coronavirus on Australian Households: A Macro–Micro Analysis," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 41(3), pages 215-231, September.
    17. Derya Demirdelen Alrawadieh, 2021. "Does Employability Anxiety Trigger Psychological Distress and Academic Major Dissatisfaction? A Study on Tour Guiding Students," Journal of Tourismology, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 7(1), pages 55-71, June.
    18. Zhai, Xueting & Zhong, Dixi & Luo, Qiuju, 2019. "Turn it around in crisis communication: An ABM approach," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    19. Daniel Béland & Alex Jingwei He & M Ramesh, 2022. "COVID-19, crisis responses, and public policies: from the persistence of inequalities to the importance of policy design [The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality]," Policy and Society, Darryl S. Jarvis and M. Ramesh, vol. 41(2), pages 187-198.
    20. Chung-Wei Kuo, 2021. "Can We Return to Our Normal Life When the Pandemic Is under Control? A Preliminary Study on the Influence of COVID-19 on the Tourism Characteristics of Taiwan," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(17), pages 1-17, August.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:19:y:2022:i:2:p:991-:d:725951. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.