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Reviewing Usage, Potentials, and Limitations of Renewable Energy Sources


  • George E. Halkos

    (Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, 38333 Volos, Greece)

  • Eleni-Christina Gkampoura

    (Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, 38333 Volos, Greece)


The world’s ever-increasing population, combined with economic and technological growth and a new, modern way of life, has led to high energy demand and consumption. Fossil fuels have been the main energy source for many years, but their use has many negative impacts on the environment. This has made the transition to renewable energy sources necessary in order to address climate change and meet the 1.5 °C goal. This paper is a review of the different types of renewables, their potentials and limitations, and their connection to climate change, economic growth, and human health. It also examines consumers’ willingness to pay for renewables in different countries, based on the existing literature. IEA (International Energy Agency) data are analyzed, concerning renewables’ current use, the evolution of their usage, and forecasts about their future usage. Finally, policies and strategies are recommended in order to address climate change and fully integrate renewables as a sustainable energy source.

Suggested Citation

  • George E. Halkos & Eleni-Christina Gkampoura, 2020. "Reviewing Usage, Potentials, and Limitations of Renewable Energy Sources," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(11), pages 1-19, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:13:y:2020:i:11:p:2906-:d:368028

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    References listed on IDEAS

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