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Regional Energy, CO 2 , and Economic and Air Quality Index Performances in China: A Meta-Frontier Approach

Author

Listed:
  • Ying Li

    () (Business School, Sichuan University, Wangjiang Road, No. 29, Chengdu 610064, China)

  • Yung-Ho Chiu

    () (Department of Economics, Soochow University, No. 56, Section 1, Kueiyang Street, Chungcheng District, Taipei 10048, Taiwan)

  • Liang Chun Lu

    () (Department of Economics, Soochow University, No. 56, Section 1, Kueiyang Street, Chungcheng District, Taipei 10048, Taiwan)

Abstract

Rapid economic development has resulted in a significant increase in energy consumption and pollution such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ), SO 2 , and NO 2 emissions, which can cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Therefore, to ensure a sustainable future, it is essential to improve economic efficiency and reduce emissions. Using a Meta-frontier Non-radial Directional Distance Function model, this study took energy consumption, the labor force, and fixed asset investments as the inputs, Gross domestic product (GDP) as the desirable output, and CO 2 and the Air Quality Index (AQI) scores as the undesirable outputs to assess energy efficiency and air pollutant index efficiency scores in China from 2013–2016 and to identify the areas in which improvements was necessary. It was found that there was a large gap between the western and eastern cities in China. A comparison of the CO 2 and AQI in 31 Chinese cities showed a significant difference in the CO 2 emissions and AQI efficiency scores, with the lower scoring cities being mainly concentrated in China’s western region. It was therefore concluded that China needs to pay greater attention to the differences in the economic levels, stages of social development, and energy structures in the western cities when developing appropriately focused improvement plans.

Suggested Citation

  • Ying Li & Yung-Ho Chiu & Liang Chun Lu, 2018. "Regional Energy, CO 2 , and Economic and Air Quality Index Performances in China: A Meta-Frontier Approach," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(8), pages 1-20, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:8:p:2119-:d:163759
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    Keywords

    AQI; CO 2 ; energy use efficiency; meta-frontier; Non-radial Directional Distance Function;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q47 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy Forecasting
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q49 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Other

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