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Sustainable Food Systems for Future Cities: The Potential of Urban Agriculture

Author

Listed:
  • Kubi Ackerman

    (Earth Institute, Columbia University)

  • Michael Conard

    (Earth Institute, Columbia University)

  • Patricia Culligan

    (Earth Institute, Columbia University; School of Engineering and Applied Science, Columbia University)

  • Richard Plunz

    (Earth Institute, Columbia University; Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Columbia University)

  • Maria-Paola Sutto

    (Earth Institute, Columbia University)

  • Leigh Whittinghill

    (Earth Institute, Columbia University)

Abstract

Populations around the world are growing and becoming predominately urban, fueling the need to re-examine how urban spaces are developed and urban inhabitants are fed. One remedy that is increasingly being considered as a solution to inadequate food access in cities, is urban agriculture. As a practice, urban agriculture is beneficial in both post-industrial and developing cities because it touches on the three pillars of sustainability: economics, society, and the environment. Historically, as well as currently, economic and food security are two of the most common reasons for participation in urban agriculture. Urban agriculture not only provides a source of healthful sustenance that might otherwise be lacking, it can also contribute to a household’s income, offset food expenditures, and create jobs. Social facets are another reason for populations to engage in urban agriculture. A garden or rooftop farm is a place where people come together for mutual benefit, often enhancing the common social and cultural identity for city residents. Larger urban farms also participate in community enrichment through job training and other educational programmes, many of which benefit underserved populations. Finally, urban agriculture can play an important role in the environmental sustainability of a city. As a form of green infrastructure, urban farms and community food gardens help reduce urban heat island effects, mitigate urban stormwater impacts and lower the energy embodied in food transportation. This paper will describe a multi-year study undertaken by the Urban Design Laboratory at the Earth Institute to assess the opportunities and challenges associated with the development of urban agriculture in New York City (NYC). The paper will present metrics on potential growing capacity within the City inclusive of both rooftop and land-based options, results from a survey of New York City based urban farmers that gathered information on the challenges and barriers to food production in NYC, with a focus on rooftop farming, and data from an environmental monitoring study on a commercial rooftop farm in Brooklyn. The paper will use the results of the multi-year study to provide insight into the potential role of urban agriculture to creating a more sustainable food system for New York City and cities elsewhere.

Suggested Citation

  • Kubi Ackerman & Michael Conard & Patricia Culligan & Richard Plunz & Maria-Paola Sutto & Leigh Whittinghill, 2014. "Sustainable Food Systems for Future Cities: The Potential of Urban Agriculture," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 45(2), pages 189-206.
  • Handle: RePEc:eso:journl:v:45:y:2014:i:2:p:189-206
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Vagneron, Isabelle, 2007. "Economic appraisal of profitability and sustainability of peri-urban agriculture in Bangkok," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2-3), pages 516-529, March.
    2. Widome, R. & Neumark-Sztainer, D. & Hannan, P.J. & Haines, J. & Story, M., 2009. "Eating when there is not enough to eat: Eating behaviors and perceptions of food among food-insecure youths," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 99(5), pages 822-828.
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    Cited by:

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    2. Marusak, Amy & Sadeghiamirshahidi, Narjes & Krejci, Caroline C. & Mittal, Anuj & Beckwith, Sue & Cantu, Jaime & Morris, Mike & Grimm, Jason, 2021. "Resilient regional food supply chains and rethinking the way forward: Key takeaways from the COVID-19 pandemic," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 190(C).
    3. Chandni Singh & James Ford & Debora Ley & Amir Bazaz & Aromar Revi, 2020. "Assessing the feasibility of adaptation options: methodological advancements and directions for climate adaptation research and practice," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 162(2), pages 255-277, September.
    4. Ayambire, Raphael Anammasiya & Amponsah, Owusu & Peprah, Charles & Takyi, Stephen Appiah, 2019. "A review of practices for sustaining urban and peri-urban agriculture: Implications for land use planning in rapidly urbanising Ghanaian cities," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 260-277.
    5. Paul D. Jensen & Caroline Orfila, 2021. "Mapping the production-consumption gap of an urban food system: an empirical case study of food security and resilience," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 13(3), pages 551-570, June.
    6. Chandni Singh & James Ford & Debora Ley & Amir Bazaz & Aromar Revi, 0. "Assessing the feasibility of adaptation options: methodological advancements and directions for climate adaptation research and practice," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-23.
    7. Ina Opitz & Regine Berges & Annette Piorr & Thomas Krikser, 2016. "Contributing to food security in urban areas: differences between urban agriculture and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer;The Agriculture, Food, & Human Values Society (AFHVS), vol. 33(2), pages 341-358, June.
    8. Maëlle Tripon & Dorothée Boccanfuso & Marie-Eve Yergeau, 2020. "Agriculture urbaine, pratiques agricoles et impacts environnementaux et de santé publique," Cahiers de recherche 20-02, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.

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