IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eme/sefpps/v28y2011i1p5-13.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

On the relationship between weather and stock market returns

Author

Listed:
  • Christos Floros

Abstract

Purpose - The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between weather (temperature) and stock market returns using daily data from Portugal; also, to examine whether the temperature is driven by calendar-related anomalies such as the January and trading month effects. Design/methodology/approach - Daily financial and weather data from Lisbon Stock Exchange (PSI 20 index) and Lisbon capital for the period 1995-2007 are considered. The paper employs an AR(1)-TGARCH(1,1) model under several distributional assumptions (Normal, Student's- Findings - Empirical results show that temperature affects negatively the PSI20 stock returns in Portugal. Moreover, temperature is dependent of both January and trading month effects. Stock returns were found to be positive in January and higher over the first fortnight of the month. Lower temperature in January leads to higher stock returns due to investors' aggressive risk taking. Research limitations/implications - Further research should investigate the impact of other meteorological variables (humidity, amount of sunshine) and other calendar anomalies on the course and behaviour of major international stock indices using data before and after the recent crisis. Practical implications - The findings are helpful to financial managers, investors and traders dealing with the Portuguese stock market. Originality/value - The contribution of this paper is to provide evidence on the empirical linkages between temperature and stock market returns using GARCH models. To better understand the relationship between the temperature and stock market returns, the paper also examines whether the returns are higher in winter (January effect) and during the first or second fortnight of the month (trading month effect). To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first empirical investigation on weather and stock market returns relationship for Portugal.

Suggested Citation

  • Christos Floros, 2011. "On the relationship between weather and stock market returns," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(1), pages 5-13, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eme:sefpps:v:28:y:2011:i:1:p:5-13
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/10867371111110525?utm_campaign=RePEc&WT.mc_id=RePEc
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Moller, Nicholas & Zilca, Shlomo, 2008. "The evolution of the January effect," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 447-457, March.
    2. Cao, Melanie & Wei, Jason, 2005. "Stock market returns: A note on temperature anomaly," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1559-1573, June.
    3. Fred Espen Benth & Jurate Saltyte-Benth, 2005. "Stochastic Modelling of Temperature Variations with a View Towards Weather Derivatives," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 53-85.
    4. Angel Pardo & Enric Valor, 2003. "Spanish Stock Returns: Where is the Weather Effect?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 9(1), pages 117-126.
    5. David Hirshleifer & Tyler Shumway, 2003. "Good Day Sunshine: Stock Returns and the Weather," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1009-1032, June.
    6. Saunders, Edward M, Jr, 1993. "Stock Prices and Wall Street Weather," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1337-1345, December.
    7. Cooper, Michael J. & McConnell, John J. & Ovtchinnikov, Alexei V., 2006. "The other January effect," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 315-341, November.
    8. William N. Goetzmann & Ning Zhu, 2005. "Rain or Shine: Where is the Weather Effect?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(5), pages 559-578.
    9. Christos Floros, 2008. "Stock market returns and the temperature effect: new evidence from Europe," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 4(6), pages 461-467.
    10. Mark J. Kamstra & Lisa A. Kramer & Maurice D. Levi, 2003. "Winter Blues: A SAD Stock Market Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 324-343, March.
    11. Christos Floros & Shabbar Jaffry & Goncalo Valle Lima, 2007. "Long memory in the Portuguese stock market," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 24(3), pages 220-232, August.
    12. David Hirshleifer, 2001. "Investor Psychology and Asset Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1533-1597, August.
    13. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    14. Peter Alaton & Boualem Djehiche & David Stillberger, 2002. "On modelling and pricing weather derivatives," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 1-20.
    15. Symeonidis, Lazaros & Daskalakis, George & Markellos, Raphael N., 2010. "Does the weather affect stock market volatility?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 214-223, December.
    16. Dorje Brody & Joanna Syroka & Mihail Zervos, 2002. "Dynamical pricing of weather derivatives," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(3), pages 189-198.
    17. Chang, Tsangyao & Nieh, Chien-Chung & Yang, Ming Jing & Yang, Tse-Yu, 2006. "Are stock market returns related to the weather effects? Empirical evidence from Taiwan," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 364(C), pages 343-354.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nicholas Apergis & Alexandros Gabrielsen & Lee Smales, 2016. "(Unusual) weather and stock returns—I am not in the mood for mood: further evidence from international markets," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 30(1), pages 63-94, February.
    2. repec:eee:riibaf:v:41:y:2017:i:c:p:377-386 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ivana Štulec, 2017. "Effectiveness of Weather Derivatives as a Risk Management Tool in Food Retail: The Case of Croatia," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(1), pages 1-15, January.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eme:sefpps:v:28:y:2011:i:1:p:5-13. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Virginia Chapman). General contact details of provider: http://www.emeraldinsight.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.