IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Comparing the Climate Policy Performance of Emerging Economies


  • Never, Babette
  • Betz, Joachim


Domestic climate policies and the actual environmental performance differ between emerging economies. Using a fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), this paper tests the influence of the domestic green industry, the ratio of fossil fuels to financial power, the international negotiating position, and the environmental civil society in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Mexico, and South Africa. A bad ratio of domestic fossil fuel production to financial power and a weak environmental civil society are a sufficient condition for weak climate policy performance. A weak domestic green industry combined with a weak influence of the negotiations only explains some of the cases.

Suggested Citation

  • Never, Babette & Betz, Joachim, 2014. "Comparing the Climate Policy Performance of Emerging Economies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1-15.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:59:y:2014:i:c:p:1-15
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.01.016

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ingrid Koch & Coleen Vogel & Zarina Patel, 2007. "Institutional dynamics and climate change adaptation in South Africa," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 12(8), pages 1323-1339, October.
    2. Richerzhagen, Carmen & Scholz, Imme, 2008. "China's Capacities for Mitigating Climate Change," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 308-324, February.
    3. Valenzuela, Jose Maria & Qi, Ye, 2012. "Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 128-137.
    4. Hunt Allcott & Michael Greenstone, 2012. "Is There an Energy Efficiency Gap?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(1), pages 3-28, Winter.
    5. Thomas Bernauer & Tobias Böhmelt & Vally Koubi, 2013. "Is There a Democracy–Civil Society Paradox in Global Environmental Governance?," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 13(1), pages 88-107, February.
    6. Sean Walsh & Huifang Tian & John Whalley & Manmohan Agarwal, 2011. "China and India’s participation in global climate negotiations," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 261-273, September.
    7. Jan von der Goltz, 2009. "High Stakes in a Complex Game: A Snapshot of the Climate Change Negotiating Positions of Major Developing Country Emitters," Working Papers 177, Center for Global Development.
    8. Betz, Joachim, 2012. "India's Turn in Climate Policy: Assessing the Interplay of Domestic and International Policy Change," GIGA Working Papers 190, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
    9. Rong, Fang, 2010. "Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4582-4591, August.
    10. Putnam, Robert D., 1988. "Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(3), pages 427-460, July.
    11. Winkler, Harald & Baumert, Kevin & Blanchard, Odile & Burch, Sarah & Robinson, John, 2007. "What factors influence mitigative capacity?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 692-703, January.
    12. Katharina Michaelowa & Axel Michaelowa, 2012. "India as an emerging power in international climate negotiations," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(5), pages 575-590, September.
    13. Zhou, Nan & Levine, Mark D. & Price, Lynn, 2010. "Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6439-6452, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Martens, Katrin, 2022. "Investigating subnational success conditions to foster renewable energy community co-operatives," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C).
    2. Fankhauser, Sam & Gennaioli, Caterina & Collins, Murray, 2015. "The political economy of passing climate change legislation: evidence from a survey," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 63352, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. An, Yehyun & Garvin, Michael J. & Hall, Ralph P., 2017. "Pathways to Better Project Delivery: The Link Between Capacity Factors and Urban Infrastructure Projects in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 393-405.
    4. Satya Widya Yudha & Benny Tjahjono & Athanasios Kolios, 2018. "A PESTLE Policy Mapping and Stakeholder Analysis of Indonesia’s Fossil Fuel Energy Industry," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(5), pages 1-22, May.
    5. Brännlund, Runar & Lundgren, Tommy & Söderholm, Patrik, 2015. "Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 227-235.
    6. Yujie Lu & Fangxin Yi & Shaocong Yu & Yangtian Feng & Yujuan Wang, 2022. "Pathways to Sustainable Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Policies in 20 Leading Countries Using a Qualitative Comparative Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(10), pages 1-16, May.
    7. Ghosh, Saibal, 2023. "Does climate legislation matter for bank lending? Evidence from MENA countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 212(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Valentine, Scott Victor, 2014. "The socio-political economy of electricity generation in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 416-429.
    2. Jan Beyers & Marcel Hanegraaff, 2017. "Balancing friends and foes: Explaining advocacy styles at global diplomatic conferences," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 461-484, September.
    3. Zhao, Xiaofan & Wu, Liang, 2016. "Interpreting the Evolution of the Energy-Saving Target Allocation System in China (2006–13): A View of Policy Learning," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 83-94.
    4. Stern, David I., 2012. "Modeling international trends in energy efficiency," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 2200-2208.
    5. Katharina Rietig, 2014. "Reinforcement of multilevel governance dynamics: creating momentum for increasing ambitions in international climate negotiations," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 371-389, November.
    6. Tobias Böhmelt & Carola Betzold, 2013. "The impact of environmental interest groups in international negotiations: Do ENGOs induce stronger environmental commitments?," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 127-151, May.
    7. Zhou, Zhongbing & Qin, Quande & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2020. "Government intervention in energy conservation: Justification and warning," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    8. Filippini, Massimo & Geissmann, Thomas & Karplus, Valerie J. & Zhang, Da, 2020. "The productivity impacts of energy efficiency programs in developing countries: Evidence from iron and steel firms in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    9. Tobias Böhmelt & Edita Butkutė, 2018. "The self-selection of democracies into treaty design: insights from international environmental agreements," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 351-367, June.
    10. Adenle, Ademola A. & Manning, Dale T. & Arbiol, Joseph, 2017. "Mitigating Climate Change in Africa: Barriers to Financing Low-Carbon Development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 123-132.
    11. Safarzadeh, Soroush & Rasti-Barzoki, Morteza & Hejazi, Seyed Reza, 2020. "A review of optimal energy policy instruments on industrial energy efficiency programs, rebound effects, and government policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    12. Ethan B Kapstein, 2006. "Architects of stability? International cooperation among financial supervisors," BIS Working Papers 199, Bank for International Settlements.
    13. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2014. "Programs, Prices and Policies Towards Energy Conservation and Environmental Quality in China," Working Papers 249427, Australian National University, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy.
    14. Simon Hug & Tobias Schulz, 2007. "Referendums in the EU’s constitution building process," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 177-218, June.
    15. Jonathan M. Lee, 2015. "The Impact of Heterogeneous NOx Regulations on Distributed Electricity Generation in U.S. Manufacturing," Working Papers 15-12, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    16. Louis-Gaëtan Giraudet & Anna Petronevich & Laurent Faucheux, 2018. "How do lenders price energy efficiency? Evidence from posted interest rates for unsecured credit in France [Comment les créditeurs valorisent-ils l'efficacité énergétique? Une analyse des taux d'in," Working Papers hal-01890636, HAL.
    17. Bellelli, Francesco S. & Scarpa, Riccardo & Aftab, Ashar, 2023. "An empirical analysis of participation in international environmental agreements," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    18. Kube, Roland & von Graevenitz, Kathrine & Löschel, Andreas & Massier, Philipp, 2019. "Do voluntary environmental programs reduce emissions? EMAS in the German manufacturing sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(S1).
    19. Arlan Brucal & Michael Roberts, 2015. "Can Energy Efficiency Standards Reduce Prices and Improve Quality? Evidence from the US Clothes Washer Market," Working Papers 2015-5, University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
    20. Michelsen, Carl Christian & Madlener, Reinhard, 2016. "Switching from fossil fuel to renewables in residential heating systems: An empirical study of homeowners' decisions in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 95-105.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:59:y:2014:i:c:p:1-15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.