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Carrots versus sticks: Rewarding commuters for avoiding the rush-hour--a study of willingness to participate

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  • Ben-Elia, Eran
  • Ettema, Dick

Abstract

This paper deals with the potential participation in a reward scheme to avoid peak hour driving. Using rewards in the context of congestion is novel compared to the attention received by road pricing. Psychological research emphasizes the importance of incentives such as rewards in promoting long term behavior changes. In the Netherlands, reward schemes have been tested as part of the 'Spitsmijden' project. This study analyses participation based on a survey of non-participants. Ordered Logit (OL) and mixed ordered logit discrete choice models were specified. The results show that participation is linked to working time flexibility, constraints in the household and the workplace and especially to personal motivations. These results provide critical insights in the formulation of a more coherent and flexible policy on transportation demand management and the development of a more robust tool kit for the inducement of large-scale behavioral changes.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben-Elia, Eran & Ettema, Dick, 2009. "Carrots versus sticks: Rewarding commuters for avoiding the rush-hour--a study of willingness to participate," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 68-76, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:16:y:2009:i:2:p:68-76
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Theo Arentze & Tao Feng & Harry Timmermans & Jops Robroeks, 2012. "Context-dependent influence of road attributes and pricing policies on route choice behavior of truck drivers: results of a conjoint choice experiment," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(6), pages 1173-1188, November.
    2. repec:eee:trapol:v:63:y:2018:i:c:p:98-107 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Rey, David & Dixit, Vinayak V. & Ygnace, Jean-Luc & Waller, S. Travis, 2016. "An endogenous lottery-based incentive mechanism to promote off-peak usage in congested transit systems," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 46-55.
    4. Vij, Akshay, 2013. "Incorporating the Influence of Latent Modal Preferences in Travel Demand Models," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7ng2z24q, University of California Transportation Center.
    5. Zhang, Yun & Stopher, Peter & Halling, Belinda, 2013. "Evaluation of south-Australia's TravelSmart project: Changes in community's attitudes to travel," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 15-22.
    6. Roelich, Katy & Knoeri, Christof & Steinberger, Julia K. & Varga, Liz & Blythe, Phil T. & Butler, David & Gupta, Rajat & Harrison, Gareth P. & Martin, Chris & Purnell, Phil, 2015. "Towards resource-efficient and service-oriented integrated infrastructure operation," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 40-52.
    7. repec:kap:transp:v:45:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11116-017-9844-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Ben-Elia, Eran & Ettema, Dick, 2011. "Rewarding rush-hour avoidance: A study of commuters' travel behavior," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 567-582, August.
    9. Avineri, Erel & Owen D. Waygood, E., 2013. "Applying valence framing to enhance the effect of information on transport-related carbon dioxide emissions," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 31-38.
    10. Vij, Akshay, 2013. "Incorporating the Influence of Latent Modal Preferences in Travel Demand Models," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7nq9p0cv, University of California Transportation Center.
    11. Gupta, Monika, 2016. "Willingness to pay for carbon tax: A study of Indian road passenger transport," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 46-54.
    12. Xu, Meng & Grant-Muller, Susan, 2016. "Trip mode and travel pattern impacts of a Tradable Credits Scheme: A case study of Beijing," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 72-83.
    13. Fan, Wenbo & Jiang, Xinguo & Erdogan, Sevgi & Sun, Yanshuo, 2016. "Modeling and evaluating FAIR highway performance and policy options," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 156-168.

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