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A comparison of service quality attributes for stand-alone and resort-based luxury hotels in Macau: 3-Dimensional importance-performance analysis


  • Lai, Ivan Ka Wai
  • Hitchcock, Michael


As tourism took off in Macau, more luxury hotels were constructed to satisfy demand, many of them located in leisure resort complexes. This study uses the case of luxury hotels in Macau to examine the importance of specific characteristics in leisure resorts using a 3-dimensional importance-performance analysis (3-D IPA) approach that integrates the IPA approach with the three-factor theory. A new service quality measurement scale was developed and a total of 299 visitors staying overnight in the luxury hotels in Macau were surveyed. The results reveal the types (basic, excitement, and performance) of 45 service attributes in the 3-D IPA cube for stand-alone and resort-based luxury hotels. This study indicates a variation of types of three factors for service attributes may occur in different market segments. This study contributes a new service measurement scale for luxury hotels and 3-D IPA approach for researchers to conduct future studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Lai, Ivan Ka Wai & Hitchcock, Michael, 2016. "A comparison of service quality attributes for stand-alone and resort-based luxury hotels in Macau: 3-Dimensional importance-performance analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 139-159.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:touman:v:55:y:2016:i:c:p:139-159
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.01.007

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Abalo, Javier & Varela, Jesus & Manzano, Vicente, 2007. "Importance values for Importance-Performance Analysis: A formula for spreading out values derived from preference rankings," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 115-121, February.
    2. Fallon, Paul & Schofield, Peter, 2006. "The dynamics of destination attribute importance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(6), pages 709-713, June.
    3. Azzopardi, Ernest & Nash, Robert, 2013. "A critical evaluation of importance–performance analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 222-233.
    4. Wei-Jaw Deng & Ying-Feng Kuo & Wen-Chin Chen, 2008. "Revised importance--performance analysis: three-factor theory and benchmarking," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(1), pages 37-51, January.
    5. Kurt Matzler & Elmar Sauerwein & Kenneth Heischmidt, 2003. "Importance-performance analysis revisited: the role of the factor structure of customer satisfaction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 112-129, March.
    6. Lai, Ivan Ka Wai & Hitchcock, Michael, 2015. "Importance–performance analysis in tourism: A framework for researchers," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 242-267.
    7. Scott E. Sampson & MICHAEL J. SHOWALTER, 1999. "The Performance-Importance Response Function: Observations and Implications," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 1-25, July.
    8. Qu, Hailin & Kim, Lisa Hyunjung & Im, Holly Hyunjung, 2011. "A model of destination branding: Integrating the concepts of the branding and destination image," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 465-476.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mikulić, Josip & Prebežac, Darko, 2016. "The Kano model in tourism research: A critical note," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 25-27.
    2. Jiacong Wu & Yu Wang & Ru Zhang & Jing Cai, 2018. "An Approach to Discovering Product/Service Improvement Priorities: Using Dynamic Importance-Performance Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(10), pages 1-26, October.
    3. Chen, Pin-Zheng & Liu, Wan-Yu, 2019. "Assessing management performance of the national forest park using impact range-performance analysis and impact-asymmetry analysis," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 121-138.


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