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Improving importance-performance analysis: The role of the zone of tolerance and competitor performance. The case of Taiwan's hot spring hotels


  • Chen, Kuan-Yu


Importance–performance analysis (IPA) is a valuable and popular approach for prioritizing improvements to the quality of services. Despite its simplicity, shortcomings in the analytical framework remain: (a) its application is hindered by measurement bias; (b) it requires a crosshair placement mechanism to enhance the reliability of managerial interpretations; (c) it does not account for differences between the characteristics of quality attributes; (d) it ignores the relative performance of competitors in the competitive marketplace. Since all of these issues have important managerial implications, this work proposes a model for evaluating service quality based on the competitive zone of tolerance by benchmarking against competitors, and then constructs an analytical framework referred to as “CZIPA” (competitive ZOT service quality based IPA) for prioritizing quality improvements of quality attributes to resolve these above issues. The case of a Taiwanese hot springs hotel is presented to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed CZIPA. The results of this case study demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the determination of priorities of attributes for improvement using CZIPA, enabling hotel managers to achieve a competitive advantage.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, Kuan-Yu, 2014. "Improving importance-performance analysis: The role of the zone of tolerance and competitor performance. The case of Taiwan's hot spring hotels," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 260-272.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:touman:v:40:y:2014:i:c:p:260-272
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2013.06.009

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Campos, Domingos Fernandes & Nóbrega, Kleber Cavalcanti, 2009. "Importance and the Zone of Tolerance of Customer Expectations of Fast Food Services," Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management (JOSCM), Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo (FGV EAESP), vol. 2(2), December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Guizzardi, Andrea & Stacchini, Annalisa, 2017. "Destinations strategic groups via Multivariate Competition-based IPA," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 40-50.
    2. Lai, Ivan Ka Wai & Hitchcock, Michael, 2015. "Importance–performance analysis in tourism: A framework for researchers," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 242-267.
    3. Wang, Huey-jiun & Zhang, Dan, 2017. "Comparing literary tourism in Mainland China and Taiwan: The Lu Xun Native Place and the Lin Yutang House," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 234-253.
    4. Sheng, Xiaojing & Simpson, Penny M. & Siguaw, Judy A., 2014. "U. S. winter migrants' park community attributes: An importance–performance analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 55-67.
    5. Sainaghi, Ruggero & Phillips, Paul & Zavarrone, Emma, 2017. "Performance measurement in tourism firms: A content analytical meta-approach," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 36-56.
    6. Park, Sangwon & Nicolau, Juan L., 2019. "Image effect on customer-centric measures of performance," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 226-238.
    7. Boley, B. Bynum & McGehee, Nancy Gard & Tom Hammett, A.L., 2017. "Importance-performance analysis (IPA) of sustainable tourism initiatives: The resident perspective," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 66-77.


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