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Revised importance--performance analysis: three-factor theory and benchmarking


  • Wei-Jaw Deng
  • Ying-Feng Kuo
  • Wen-Chin Chen


Importance--performance analysis (IPA) is a simple and effective technique that can be applied to guide quality-based marketing strategies and can assist practitioners in prioritising attributes when enhancing service quality and customer satisfaction. As several studies have shown, the relationship between customer's perception of attribute performance and overall satisfaction is sometimes nonlinear. These findings make the application of IPA questionable. Furthermore, competition analysis is necessary for a firm's management to attain competitive advantage. Therefore, this study presents a revised IPA which integrates three-factor theory and benchmarking. An illustrative case demonstrates the revised IPA and identifies any shortcomings produced by applying the traditional IPA.

Suggested Citation

  • Wei-Jaw Deng & Ying-Feng Kuo & Wen-Chin Chen, 2008. "Revised importance--performance analysis: three-factor theory and benchmarking," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(1), pages 37-51, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:servic:v:28:y:2008:i:1:p:37-51
    DOI: 10.1080/02642060701725412

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    Cited by:

    1. Chu, Chun-Hsiao & Guo, Yu-Jian, 2015. "Developing similarity based IPA under intuitionistic fuzzy sets to assess leisure bikeways," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 47-57.
    2. Guizzardi, Andrea & Stacchini, Annalisa, 2017. "Destinations strategic groups via Multivariate Competition-based IPA," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 40-50.
    3. Prasad, Prashant & Maitra, Bhargab, 2019. "Identifying areas of interventions for improvement of shared modes for school trips," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 122-135.
    4. Lai, Ivan Ka Wai & Hitchcock, Michael, 2015. "Importance–performance analysis in tourism: A framework for researchers," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 242-267.
    5. Albayrak, Tahir & Caber, Meltem, 2015. "Prioritisation of the hotel attributes according to their influence on satisfaction: A comparison of two techniques," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 43-50.
    6. Chen, Kuan-Yu, 2014. "Improving importance-performance analysis: The role of the zone of tolerance and competitor performance. The case of Taiwan's hot spring hotels," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 260-272.
    7. Tontini, Gerson, 2016. "Identifying opportunities for improvement in online shopping sites," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 228-238.
    8. Nyarku Kwamena Minta & Oduro Stephen, 2017. "Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Ghanaian Banking Industry," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 7(7), pages 532-550, July.
    9. Lai, Ivan Ka Wai & Hitchcock, Michael, 2016. "A comparison of service quality attributes for stand-alone and resort-based luxury hotels in Macau: 3-Dimensional importance-performance analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 139-159.
    10. Jiacong Wu & Yu Wang & Ru Zhang & Jing Cai, 2018. "An Approach to Discovering Product/Service Improvement Priorities: Using Dynamic Importance-Performance Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(10), pages 1-26, October.
    11. Mikulić, Josip & Prebežac, Darko, 2011. "Evaluating hotel animation programs at Mediterranean sun-and-sea resorts: An impact-asymmetry analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 688-696.
    12. Azzopardi, Ernest & Nash, Robert, 2013. "A critical evaluation of importance–performance analysis," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 222-233.
    13. Jinyang Deng & Chad D. Pierskalla, 2018. "Linking Importance–Performance Analysis, Satisfaction, and Loyalty: A Study of Savannah, GA," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-17, March.
    14. Arbore, Alessandro & Busacca, Bruno, 2009. "Customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in retail banking: Exploring the asymmetric impact of attribute performances," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 271-280.
    15. Zhang, Ye & Cole, Shu Tian, 2016. "Dimensions of lodging guest satisfaction among guests with mobility challenges: A mixed-method analysis of web-based texts," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 13-27.

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