IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/socmed/v61y2005i3p697-708.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Carer distress: A prospective, population-based study

Author

Listed:
  • Hirst, Michael

Abstract

This study investigates whether transitions into and out of unpaid caregiving are associated with increased risk for onset of or delayed recovery from psychological distress, and traces the prevalence of distress across successive years of caring activity and after caregiving has ceased. The analysis is based on data from the British Household Panel Survey covering 3000 would-be carers, 2900 former carers, and 11,100 non-carers during the 1990s; their psychological well-being was assessed at annual intervals using the General Health Questionnaire. Carers providing long hours of care over extended spells present raised levels of distress, women more so than men. Compared with non-carers, risk for onset of distress increases progressively with the amount of time devoted to caregiving each week. Adverse effects on the psychological well-being of heavily involved carers are most pronounced around the start of their care episodes and when caregiving ends. Ongoing care increases their susceptibility to recurring distress, and adverse health effects are evident beyond the end of their caregiving episodes. Several groups of carers experience psychological health inequalities compared with non-carers, especially those looking after a spouse or partner, and mothers caring for a sick or disabled child. The findings underline the importance for effective carer support and health promotion of early identification of carers, monitoring high risk groups, timing appropriate interventions, and targeting resources.

Suggested Citation

  • Hirst, Michael, 2005. "Carer distress: A prospective, population-based study," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 697-708, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:61:y:2005:i:3:p:697-708
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277-9536(05)00010-9
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Canning, Robert D. & Dew, Mary Amanda & Davidson, Suzanne, 1996. "Psychological distress among caregivers to heart transplant recipients," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 599-608, February.
    2. Spieß, Christa Katharina & Schneider, A. Ulrike, 2003. "Interactions between care-giving and paid work hours among European midlife women, 1994 to 1996," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 41-68.
    3. Nieboer, A. P. & Schulz, R. & Matthews, K. A. & Scheier, M. F. & Ormel, J. & Lindenberg, S. M., 1998. "Spousal caregivers' activity restriction and depression: A model for changes over time," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 47(9), pages 1361-1371, November.
    4. Taylor, Rex & Ford, Graeme & Dunbar, Martin, 1995. "The effects of caring on health: A community-based longitudinal study," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1407-1415, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Binder, Martin & Coad, Alex, 2013. "“I'm afraid I have bad news for you…” Estimating the impact of different health impairments on subjective well-being," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 155-167.
    2. Michelle Sovinsky & Steven Stern, 2016. "Dynamic modelling of long-term care decisions," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 463-488, June.
    3. Jacobs, Josephine C. & Van Houtven, Courtney H. & Laporte, Audrey & Coyte, Peter C., 2015. "Baby Boomer caregivers in the workforce: Do they fare better or worse than their predecessors?," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 6(C), pages 89-101.
    4. Exel, Job van & Graaf, Gjalt de & Brouwer, Werner, 2007. "Care for a break? An investigation of informal caregivers' attitudes toward respite care using Q-methodology," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(2-3), pages 332-342, October.
    5. Cinzia Di Novi & Rowena Jacobs & Matteo Migheli, 2013. "The quality of life of female informal caregivers: from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Sea," Working Papers 084cherp, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
    6. García-Calvente, Mar & Marcos-Marcos, Jorge & del Río-Lozano, María & Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia & Maroto-Navarro, Gracia, 2012. "Embedded gender and social changes underpinning inequalities in health: An ethnographic insight into a local Spanish context," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(12), pages 2225-2232.
    7. David C. Grabowski & Edward C. Norton & Courtney H. Van Houtven, 2012. "Informal Care," Chapters,in: The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, Second Edition, chapter 30 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Idstad, Mariann & Røysamb, Espen & Tambs, Kristian, 2011. "The effect of change in mental disorder status on change in spousal mental health: The HUNT study," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(9), pages 1408-1415.
    9. Binder, Martin & Freytag, Andreas, 2013. "Volunteering, subjective well-being and public policy," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 97-119.
    10. Dolan, Paul & Peasgood, Tessa & White, Mathew, 2008. "Do we really know what makes us happy A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 94-122, February.
    11. Norma B. Coe & Courtney Harold Van Houtven, 2009. "Caring for mom and neglecting yourself? The health effects of caring for an elderly parent," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(9), pages 991-1010.
    12. van Exel, Job & Moree, Marjolein & Koopmanschap, Marc & Goedheijt, Trudy Schreuder & Brouwer, Werner, 2006. "Respite care--An explorative study of demand and use in Dutch informal caregivers," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(2-3), pages 194-208, October.
    13. repec:spr:jopoec:v:30:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s00148-017-0635-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. van den Berg, Bernard & Fiebig, Denzil G. & Hall, Jane, 2014. "Well-being losses due to care-giving," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 123-131.
    15. Bauer, Jan Michael & Sousa-Poza, Alfonso, 2015. "Impacts of Informal Caregiving on Caregiver Employment, Health, and Family," IZA Discussion Papers 8851, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. van Exel, Job & de Graaf, Gjalt & Brouwer, Werner, 2008. "Give me a break!: Informal caregiver attitudes towards respite care," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 73-87, October.
    17. Justina Klimaviciute & Sergio Perelman & Pierre Pestieau & Jerome Schoenmaeckers, 2017. "Caring for dependent parents: Altruism, exchange or family norm?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 30(3), pages 835-873, July.
    18. Carmichael, Fiona & Ercolani, Marco G., 2016. "Unpaid caregiving and paid work over life-courses: Different pathways, diverging outcomes," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 1-11.
    19. Juan Oliva-Moreno & Luz Peña-Longobardo & Cristina Vilaplana-Prieto, 2015. "An Estimation of the Value of Informal Care Provided to Dependent People in Spain," Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 223-231, April.
    20. Hassink, Wolter H.J. & Van den Berg, Bernard, 2011. "Time-bound opportunity costs of informal care: Consequences for access to professional care, caregiver support, and labour supply estimates," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(10), pages 1508-1516.
    21. Mervin, Merehau Cindy & Frijters, Paul, 2014. "Is shared misery double misery?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 68-77.
    22. Stansfeld, Stephen & Smuk, Melanie & Onwumere, Juliana & Clark, Charlotte & Pike, Cleo & McManus, Sally & Harris, Jenny & Bebbington, Paul, 2014. "Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers – An analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 190-198.
    23. Simon, Chantal & Kumar, Satinder & Kendrick, Tony, 2009. "Cohort study of informal carers of first-time stroke survivors: Profile of health and social changes in the first year of caregiving," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 404-410, August.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:61:y:2005:i:3:p:697-708. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.