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Behaviour theory and soft transport policy measures


  • Bamberg, Sebastian
  • Fujii, Satoshi
  • Friman, Margareta
  • Gärling, Tommy


The aim is to propose a theoretical grounding of soft transport policy measures that aim at promoting voluntary reduction of car use. A general conceptual framework is first presented to clarify how hard and soft transport policy measures impact on car-use reduction. Two different behavioural theories that have been used to account for car use and car-use reduction are then integrated in a self-regulation theory that identifies four stages of the process of voluntarily changing car use: setting a car-use reduction goal, forming a plan for achieving the goal, initiating and executing the plan, and evaluating the outcome of the plan execution. A number of techniques are described that facilitate the different stages of the process of voluntary car-use reduction and which should be used in personalized travel planning programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Bamberg, Sebastian & Fujii, Satoshi & Friman, Margareta & Gärling, Tommy, 2011. "Behaviour theory and soft transport policy measures," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 228-235, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:18:y:2011:i:1:p:228-235

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Chu, Singfat, 2015. "Car restraint policies and mileage in Singapore," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 404-412.
    2. Abrahamse, Wokje & Keall, Michael, 2012. "Effectiveness of a web-based intervention to encourage carpooling to work: A case study of Wellington, New Zealand," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 45-51.
    3. repec:eee:transa:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:279-295 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Nkurunziza, Alphonse & Zuidgeest, Mark & Brussel, Mark & Van Maarseveen, Martin, 2012. "Examining the potential for modal change: Motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 249-259.
    5. Adnan, Nadia & Nordin, Shahrina Md & Rahman, Imran, 2017. "Adoption of PHEV/EV in Malaysia: A critical review on predicting consumer behaviour," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 849-862.
    6. Tribby, Calvin P. & Miller, Harvey J. & Song, Ying & Smith, Ken R., 2013. "Do air quality alerts reduce traffic? An analysis of traffic data from the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, Utah, USA," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 173-185.
    7. Mattioli, Giulio & Anable, Jillian & Vrotsou, Katerina, 2016. "Car dependent practices: Findings from a sequence pattern mining study of UK time use data," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 56-72.
    8. Dong Zhang & Jan-Dirk Schmöcker & Satoshi Fujii & Xiaoguang Yang, 2016. "Social norms and public transport usage: empirical study from Shanghai," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 869-888, September.
    9. Xuemei Fu & Zhicai Juan, 2016. "Empirical analysis and comparisons about time-allocation patterns across segments based on mode-specific preferences," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 37-51, January.
    10. Creemers, Lieve & Tormans, Hans & Bellemans, Tom & Janssens, Davy & Wets, Geert & Cools, Mario, 2015. "Knowledge of the concept Light Rail Transit: Exploring its relevance and identification of the determinants of various knowledge levels," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 31-43.
    11. repec:kap:transp:v:44:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s11116-016-9698-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Xuemei Fu & Zhicai Juan, 2016. "Empirical analysis and comparisons about time-allocation patterns across segments based on mode-specific preferences," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 37-51, January.
    13. Uba, Chijioke Dike & Chatzidakis, Andreas, 2016. "Understanding engagement and disengagement from pro-environmental behaviour: The role of neutralization and affirmation techniques in maintaining persistence in and desistance from car use," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 278-294.
    14. Riggs, William, 2015. "Testing personalized outreach as an effective TDM measure," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 178-186.
    15. Tim Schwanen, 2015. "The Bumpy Road toward Low-Energy Urban Mobility: Case Studies from Two UK Cities," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(6), pages 1-26, June.
    16. Jan-Dirk Schmöcker & Tsuyoshi Hatori & David Watling, 2014. "Dynamic process model of mass effects on travel demand," Transportation, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 279-304, March.
    17. Cass, Noel & Faulconbridge, James, 2016. "Commuting practices: New insights into modal shift from theories of social practice," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 1-14.
    18. repec:kap:transp:v:44:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11116-016-9681-y is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Spears, Steven & Houston, Douglas & Boarnet, Marlon G., 2013. "Illuminating the unseen in transit use: A framework for examining the effect of attitudes and perceptions on travel behavior," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 40-53.
    20. Parkes, Stephen D. & Jopson, Ann & Marsden, Greg, 2016. "Understanding travel behaviour change during mega-events: Lessons from the London 2012 Games," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 104-119.
    21. Machado-León, José Luis & de Oña, Rocío & Baouni, Tahar & de Oña, Juan, 2017. "Railway transit services in Algiers: priority improvement actions based on users perceptions," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 175-185.


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