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Gender role orientations and alcohol use among Moscow and Toronto adults


  • Van Gundy, Karen
  • Schieman, Scott
  • Kelley, Margaret S.
  • Rebellon, Cesar J.


Using self-report data from representative community samples of Moscow and Toronto adults, we examine the effects of sex, masculinity, and femininity on alcohol use. Consistent with prior research, our results show that men in Moscow and Toronto drink significantly more than women; women in both samples tend more toward conventional femininity than men; and masculinity levels are greater among Toronto men relative to Toronto women. Moscow men and women, however, show comparable masculinity levels. Neither masculinity nor femininity explains the sex gap in alcohol use in either sample. However, sex- and sample-specific effects are identified. In Toronto, femininity is associated with higher alcohol use among women. In Moscow, masculinity is associated with lower use among men and higher use among women. The findings provide preliminary support for our assertion that the characteristics of national contexts, such as drinking norms and "Soviet-style socialism" [Cockerham, Snead, & Dewaal (2002). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 42-55] interact with traditional gender role orientations to influence alcohol use patterns. We suggest that a movement toward culturally sensitive policies that consider sex-specific social expectations and responses may contribute to improved health outcomes across nations.

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  • Van Gundy, Karen & Schieman, Scott & Kelley, Margaret S. & Rebellon, Cesar J., 2005. "Gender role orientations and alcohol use among Moscow and Toronto adults," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 61(11), pages 2317-2330, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:61:y:2005:i:11:p:2317-2330

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Field, Mark G., 1995. "The health crisis in the former Soviet Union: A report from the 'post-war' zone," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 41(11), pages 1469-1478, December.
    4. Susan L. Averett & Julie L. Hotchkiss, 1996. "Discrimination in the Payment of Full-Time Wage Premiums," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(2), pages 287-301, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bhattacharya, Prabir C, 2012. "Gender Inequality and the Sex Ratio in Three Emerging Economies," SIRE Discussion Papers 2012-31, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    2. Roberts, Sarah C.M., 2012. "Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: A multi-level analysis across U.S. States," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 60-68.
    3. Rod, Michel & Ashill, Nicholas J. & Gibbs, Tanya, 2016. "Customer perceptions of frontline employee service delivery: A study of Russian bank customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 212-221.
    4. Cockerham, William C. & Hinote, Brian P. & Abbott, Pamela, 2006. "Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 63(9), pages 2381-2394, November.
    5. Lukas Pitel & Andrea Geckova & Jitse vanDijk & Sijmen Reijneveld, 2011. "Degree of urbanization and gender differences in substance use among Slovak adolescents," International Journal of Public Health, Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 56(6), pages 645-651, December.
    6. Hinote, Brian Philip & Cockerham, William C. & Abbott, Pamela, 2009. "The specter of post-communism: Women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(7), pages 1254-1262, April.
    7. Prabir C. Bhattacharya, 2012. "Gender Inequality and the Sex Ratio in Three Emerging Economies," Heriot-Watt University Economics Discussion Papers 1201, Department of Economics, School of Management and Languages, Heriot Watt University.
    8. Rhodes, Tim & Bivol, Stela, 2012. "“Back then” and “nowadays”: Social transition narratives in accounts of injecting drug use in an East European setting," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 425-433.


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