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United States digital divide: State level analysis of spatial clustering and multivariate determinants of ICT utilization


  • Pick, James B.
  • Sarkar, Avijit
  • Johnson, Jeremy


This study analyzes factors associated with availability and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for U.S. states. We construct an exploratory conceptual model of technology utilization in which eight dependent ICT availability and utilization factors are posited to be associated with fourteen independent socio-economic, demographic, innovation, social capital, and societal openness factors. Technology utilization variables are spatially analyzed to determine extent of agglomeration, and regression residuals are examined to eliminate spatial bias. Findings indicate social capital, education, societal openness, urbanization, and ethnicities are significantly associated with ICT utilization. We suggest important implications for policymakers at state and federal levels.

Suggested Citation

  • Pick, James B. & Sarkar, Avijit & Johnson, Jeremy, 2015. "United States digital divide: State level analysis of spatial clustering and multivariate determinants of ICT utilization," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 16-32.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:soceps:v:49:y:2015:i:c:p:16-32
    DOI: 10.1016/j.seps.2014.09.001

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Prieger, James E., 2013. "The broadband digital divide and the economic benefits of mobile broadband for rural areas," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 483-502.
    2. Vicente, María Rosalía & López, Ana Jesús, 2011. "Assessing the regional digital divide across the European Union-27," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 220-237, April.
    3. Kiiski, Sampsa & Pohjola, Matti, 2002. "Cross-country diffusion of the Internet," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 297-310, June.
    4. Quibria, M. G. & Ahmed, Shamsun N. & Tschang, Ted & Reyes-Macasaquit, Mari-Len, 2003. "Digital divide: determinants and policies with special reference to Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 811-825, January.
    5. Buys, Piet & Dasgupta, Susmita & Thomas, Timothy S. & Wheeler, David, 2009. "Determinants of a Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Cell Phone Coverage," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1494-1505, September.
    6. Jarque, Carlos M. & Bera, Anil K., 1980. "Efficient tests for normality, homoscedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 255-259.
    7. Hargittai, Eszter, 1999. "Weaving the Western Web: explaining differences in Internet connectivity among OECD countries," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(10-11), pages 701-718, November.
    8. Grubesic, Tony H., 2006. "A spatial taxonomy of broadband regions in the United States," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 423-448, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Alathur, Sreejith & Vigneswara Ilavarasan, P. & Gupta, M.P., 2016. "Determinants of e-participation in the citizens and the government initiatives: Insights from India," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 25-35.
    2. repec:spr:infosf:v:20:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s10796-016-9705-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Sarkar, Avijit & Pick, James B. & Johnson, Jeremy, 2015. "Africa's digital divide: Geography, policy, and implications," 2015 Regional ITS Conference, Los Angeles 2015 146339, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
    4. Silvana Rossy Brito & Aleksandra Socorro da Silva & Eulália Carvalho Mata & Nandamudi Lankalapalli Vijaykumar & Cláudio Alex Jorge Rocha & Maurílio Abreu Monteiro & João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque Co, 0. "An approach to evaluate large-scale ICT training interventions," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-17.


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