A productivity analysis of Central and Eastern European banking taking into account risk decomposition and environmental variables
This paper develops a Luenberger productivity index that is applied to a technology where desirable and undesirable outputs are jointly produced and are possibly negative. The components of this Luenberger productivity index - the efficiency change and the components of the technological shift - are then decomposed into factors determined by the technology, adjusted and then for [`]risk and environment', [`]risk management' and [`]environmental effects'. The method is applied to Central and Eastern European banks operating during 1998-2003 utilising three alternative input/output methodologies (intermediation, production and profit/revenue). Additionally, the comparative analysis of the sensitivity of the productivity indices in the choice of the methodologies is undertaken using statistical and kernel density tests. It is found that the main driver of productivity change in Central and Eastern European banks is technological improvement. That is, in the beginning of the analysed period, the results hinged on the banks ability to capitalise on advanced technology and successfully take into account [`]risk and environmental' factors. Whereas, in later periods, one of the most important factors of technological improvement/decline was [`]risk management'. Finally, the tests employed confirm previous findings, such as Pasiouras (2008) in this journal, that different input/output methodologies produce statistically different productivity results. Finally, we find that external factors, such as [`]risk in the economy' and banking production, and a [`]corruption perception' affect the productivity of banks.
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