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Accelerated energy capacity measurement of lithium-ion cells to support future circular economy strategies for electric vehicles


  • Groenewald, Jakobus
  • Grandjean, Thomas
  • Marco, James


Within the academic and industrial communities there has been an increasing desire to better understand the sustainability of producing vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) or Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State of Health (SOH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity measurements of Li-ion cells can be accelerated; reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further EOL options. Experimental results are presented that highlight it is possible to significantly reduce the duration of the battery characterization test by 70–90% while still retaining levels of measurement accuracy for retained energy capacity in the order of 1% for cell temperatures equal to 25°C. Even at elevated temperatures of 40°C, the peak measurement error was found to be only 3%. Based on these experimental results, a simple cost-function is formulated to highlight the flexibility of the proposed test framework. This approach would allow different organizations to prioritize the relative importance of test accuracy verses experimental test time when grading used Li-ion cells for different end-of-life (EOL) applications.

Suggested Citation

  • Groenewald, Jakobus & Grandjean, Thomas & Marco, James, 2017. "Accelerated energy capacity measurement of lithium-ion cells to support future circular economy strategies for electric vehicles," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 98-111.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:69:y:2017:i:c:p:98-111
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.017

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hannan, M.A. & Azidin, F.A. & Mohamed, A., 2014. "Hybrid electric vehicles and their challenges: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 135-150.
    2. Zhong, Liang & Zhang, Chenbin & He, Yao & Chen, Zonghai, 2014. "A method for the estimation of the battery pack state of charge based on in-pack cells uniformity analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 558-564.
    3. Shifei Yuan & Hongjie Wu & Chengliang Yin, 2013. "State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(1), pages 1-27, January.
    4. Erwin M. Schau & Marzia Traverso & Annekatrin Lehmann & Matthias Finkbeiner, 2011. "Life Cycle Costing in Sustainability Assessment—A Case Study of Remanufactured Alternators," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(11), pages 1-21, November.
    5. Wang, Qian & Jiang, Bin & Li, Bo & Yan, Yuying, 2016. "A critical review of thermal management models and solutions of lithium-ion batteries for the development of pure electric vehicles," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 106-128.
    6. Ming-Hui Chang & Han-Pang Huang & Shu-Wei Chang, 2013. "A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO 4 Battery Packs Used in Robots," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(4), pages 1-24, April.
    7. Jaguemont, J. & Boulon, L. & Dubé, Y., 2016. "A comprehensive review of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid and electric vehicles at cold temperatures," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 99-114.
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