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Factory-level measurements on CO2 emission factors of cement production in China

Author

Listed:
  • Shen, Lei
  • Gao, Tianming
  • Zhao, Jianan
  • Wang, Limao
  • Wang, Lan
  • Liu, Litao
  • Chen, Fengnan
  • Xue, Jingjing

Abstract

Cement is a primary component of concrete and is consumed extensively for construction and transportation infrastructures worldwide. Cement is largely produced and consumed locally but has global impact in terms of both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. China is both the largest producer of cement and the biggest emitter of CO2 emissions in the world. It has been widely recognized that uncertainties of China׳s CO2 emissions were poorly quantified and clear discrepancies can be identified among different sources. These discrepancies arise from many uncertainties, including system boundary and statistical standards, availability of production data (especially for the clinker and cement outputs), and emission factors. We argue that the emission factors (EFs, either default values or adjusted ones) are the most important here and highlight the importance of clearly defining the CO2 accounting and reporting boundaries for determining the emission factors. We therefore developed a factory-level measurement for different types of clinker and cement production, primarily using onsite surveys and sampling, with the objective of distinguishing process-, combustion- and electricity-related emission factors on a factory level. It is a bottom-up CO2 emission inventory for China using the uniform formula and calculators and the first time factory-level sampling method (BFSM) based on three tiers of production lines, provincial and national integrations. Our results indicate that China׳s carbon emissions from cement production might be overestimated in the previous estimates because they overlooked the technology transition from the wet process to the dry process, differences in lime content and clinker-to-cement ratios, raw materials and fuels substitutions, and usages of blend additives.

Suggested Citation

  • Shen, Lei & Gao, Tianming & Zhao, Jianan & Wang, Limao & Wang, Lan & Liu, Litao & Chen, Fengnan & Xue, Jingjing, 2014. "Factory-level measurements on CO2 emission factors of cement production in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 337-349.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:337-349
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.03.025
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ke, Jing & McNeil, Michael & Price, Lynn & Khanna, Nina Zheng & Zhou, Nan, 2013. "Estimation of CO2 emissions from China’s cement production: Methodologies and uncertainties," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 172-181.
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    Cited by:

    1. Shen, Weiguo & Cao, Liu & Li, Qiu & Zhang, Wensheng & Wang, Guiming & Li, Chaochao, 2015. "Quantifying CO2 emissions from China’s cement industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1004-1012.
    2. Shan, Yuli & Liu, Zhu & Guan, Dabo, 2016. "CO2 emissions from China’s lime industry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 245-252.
    3. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:5:p:414:d:68977 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Junxiao Wei & Kuang Cen & Yuanbo Geng, 2019. "Evaluation and mitigation of cement CO2 emissions: projection of emission scenarios toward 2030 in China and proposal of the roadmap to a low-carbon world by 2050," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 301-328, February.
    5. Gao, Tianming & Shen, Lei & Shen, Ming & Liu, Litao & Chen, Fengnan & Gao, Li, 2017. "Evolution and projection of CO2 emissions for China's cement industry from 1980 to 2020," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 522-537.
    6. Shen, Weiguo & Liu, Yi & Yan, Bilan & Wang, Jing & He, Pengtao & Zhou, Congcong & Huo, Xujia & Zhang, Wuzong & Xu, Gelong & Ding, Qingjun, 2017. "Cement industry of China: Driving force, environment impact and sustainable development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 618-628.
    7. Wang, JingJing & Wang, YuanFeng & Sun, YiWen & Tingley, Danielle Densley & Zhang, YuRong, 2017. "Life cycle sustainability assessment of fly ash concrete structures," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1162-1174.
    8. Wu, Rui & Geng, Yong & Cui, Xiaowei & Gao, Ziyan & Liu, Zhiqing, 2019. "Reasons for recent stagnancy of carbon emissions in China's industrial sectors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 457-466.
    9. Cai, Bofeng & Wang, Jinnan & He, Jie & Geng, Yong, 2016. "Evaluating CO2 emission performance in China’s cement industry: An enterprise perspective," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 191-200.
    10. Ofosu-Adarkwa, Jeffrey & Xie, Naiming & Javed, Saad Ahmed, 2020. "Forecasting CO2 emissions of China's cement industry using a hybrid Verhulst-GM(1,N) model and emissions' technical conversion," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).

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    Keywords

    Emission factors; CO2 emission; Cement production; China;
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