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Estimation of CO2 emissions from China’s cement production: Methodologies and uncertainties

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  • Ke, Jing
  • McNeil, Michael
  • Price, Lynn
  • Khanna, Nina Zheng
  • Zhou, Nan

Abstract

In 2010, China’s cement output was 1.9Gt, which accounted for 56% of world cement production. Total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from Chinese cement production could therefore exceed 1.2Gt. The magnitude of emissions from this single industrial sector in one country underscores the need to understand the uncertainty of current estimates of cement emissions in China. This paper compares several methodologies for calculating CO2 emissions from cement production, including the three main components of emissions: direct emissions from the calcination process for clinker production, direct emissions from fossil fuel combustion and indirect emissions from electricity consumption. This paper examines in detail the differences between common methodologies for each emission component, and considers their effect on total emissions. We then evaluate the overall level of uncertainty implied by the differences among methodologies according to recommendations of the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology. We find a relative uncertainty in China’s cement-related emissions in the range of 10 to 18%. This result highlights the importance of understanding and refining methods of estimating emissions in this important industrial sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Ke, Jing & McNeil, Michael & Price, Lynn & Khanna, Nina Zheng & Zhou, Nan, 2013. "Estimation of CO2 emissions from China’s cement production: Methodologies and uncertainties," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 172-181.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:57:y:2013:i:c:p:172-181
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.01.028
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ke, Jing & Zheng, Nina & Fridley, David & Price, Lynn & Zhou, Nan, 2012. "Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 739-751.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zhu Liu & Bo Zheng & Qiang Zhang, 2018. "New dynamics of energy use and CO2 emissions in China," Papers 1811.09475, arXiv.org.
    2. Huh, Sung-Yoon & Lee, Hyejin & Shin, Jungwoo & Lee, Donghyun & Jang, Jinyoung, 2018. "Inter-fuel substitution path analysis of the korea cement industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 82(P3), pages 4091-4099.
    3. Shen, Weiguo & Cao, Liu & Li, Qiu & Zhang, Wensheng & Wang, Guiming & Li, Chaochao, 2015. "Quantifying CO2 emissions from China’s cement industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 1004-1012.
    4. Shan, Yuli & Liu, Zhu & Guan, Dabo, 2016. "CO2 emissions from China’s lime industry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 245-252.
    5. Zhang, Yingying & Ji, Xiaoyan & Lu, Xiaohua, 2014. "Energy consumption analysis for CO2 separation from gas mixtures," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 237-243.
    6. Junxiao Wei & Kuang Cen, 2019. "A preliminary calculation of cement carbon dioxide in China from 1949 to 2050," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 24(8), pages 1343-1362, December.
    7. Li Ping & Gang Zhao & Xiaohu Lin & Yunhui Gu & Wei Liu & Haihua Cao & Juwen Huang & Jingcheng Xu, 2020. "Feasibility and Carbon Footprint Analysis of Lime-Dried Sludge for Cement Production," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(6), pages 1-11, March.
    8. Gao, Tianming & Shen, Lei & Shen, Ming & Liu, Litao & Chen, Fengnan & Gao, Li, 2017. "Evolution and projection of CO2 emissions for China's cement industry from 1980 to 2020," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 522-537.
    9. Shen, Lei & Gao, Tianming & Zhao, Jianan & Wang, Limao & Wang, Lan & Liu, Litao & Chen, Fengnan & Xue, Jingjing, 2014. "Factory-level measurements on CO2 emission factors of cement production in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 337-349.
    10. Zhang, Shaohui & Worrell, Ernst & Crijns-Graus, Wina, 2015. "Evaluating co-benefits of energy efficiency and air pollution abatement in China’s cement industry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 192-213.
    11. Shen, Weiguo & Liu, Yi & Yan, Bilan & Wang, Jing & He, Pengtao & Zhou, Congcong & Huo, Xujia & Zhang, Wuzong & Xu, Gelong & Ding, Qingjun, 2017. "Cement industry of China: Driving force, environment impact and sustainable development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 618-628.
    12. Liu, Xianbing & Fan, Yongbin & Li, Chen, 2016. "Carbon pricing for low carbon technology diffusion: A survey analysis of China's cement industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 73-86.
    13. Cai, Bofeng & Wang, Jinnan & He, Jie & Geng, Yong, 2016. "Evaluating CO2 emission performance in China’s cement industry: An enterprise perspective," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 191-200.
    14. Ofosu-Adarkwa, Jeffrey & Xie, Naiming & Javed, Saad Ahmed, 2020. "Forecasting CO2 emissions of China's cement industry using a hybrid Verhulst-GM(1,N) model and emissions' technical conversion," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).

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    Keywords

    Cement industry; CO2 emissions; Uncertainty;
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