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Mitigating energy-related GHG emissions through renewable energy


  • El-Fadel, M.
  • Chedid, R.
  • Zeinati, M.
  • Hmaidan, W.


An inventory of greenhouse gas emissions from various economic sectors in Lebanon was conducted following the guidelines set by the World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Programme Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The inventory indicated that the energy sector is the major contributor (74%) to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the inventory of energy related GHG emissions and assesses mitigation options to reduce emissions from electricity generation with emphasis on the usage of renewable energy including biomass, hydropower, solar and wind resources. Policy options for overcoming barriers hindering the exploitation of renewable energy resources are discussed in the context of country-specific characteristics.

Suggested Citation

  • El-Fadel, M. & Chedid, R. & Zeinati, M. & Hmaidan, W., 2003. "Mitigating energy-related GHG emissions through renewable energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1257-1276.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:28:y:2003:i:8:p:1257-1276
    DOI: 10.1016/S0960-1481(02)00229-X

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Prasad, Ravita D. & Bansal, R.C. & Raturi, Atul, 2014. "Multi-faceted energy planning: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 686-699.
    2. repec:eee:rensus:v:80:y:2017:i:c:p:572-584 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Chicco, Gianfranco & Mancarella, Pierluigi, 2009. "Distributed multi-generation: A comprehensive view," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 535-551, April.
    4. Tsai, W. T. & Chou, Y. H., 2005. "Overview of environmental impacts, prospects and policies for renewable energy in Taiwan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 119-147, April.
    5. AkpInar, Adem & Kömürcü, Murat Ihsan & Kankal, Murat & Özölçer, Ismail HakkI & Kaygusuz, Kamil, 2008. "Energy situation and renewables in Turkey and environmental effects of energy use," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(8), pages 2013-2039, October.
    6. Dagher, Leila & Ruble, Isabella, 2011. "Modeling Lebanon’s electricity sector: Alternative scenarios and their implications," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4315-4326.
    7. Mohammed, Y.S. & Mokhtar, A.S. & Bashir, N. & Saidur, R., 2013. "An overview of agricultural biomass for decentralized rural energy in Ghana," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 15-25.
    8. Umar, Mohd Shaharin & Jennings, Philip & Urmee, Tania, 2013. "Strengthening the palm oil biomass Renewable Energy industry in Malaysia," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 107-115.
    9. Dinesh, Harshavardhan & Pearce, Joshua M., 2016. "The potential of agrivoltaic systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 299-308.
    10. Taseska, V. & Markovska, N. & Causevski, A. & Bosevski, T. & Pop-Jordanov, J., 2011. "Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reduction in a power system predominantly based on lignite," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 2266-2270.
    11. Ahanchian, Mohammad & Biona, Jose Bienvenido Manuel, 2014. "Energy demand, emissions forecasts and mitigation strategies modeled over a medium-range horizon: The case of the land transportation sector in Metro Manila," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 615-629.
    12. Ruble, Isabella & Nader, Pamela, 2011. "Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2467-2474, May.
    13. Hamdan, H.A. & Ghajar, R.F. & Chedid, R.B., 2012. "A simulation model for reliability-based appraisal of an energy policy: The case of Lebanon," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 293-303.
    14. Kabakian, V. & McManus, M.C. & Harajli, H., 2015. "Attributional life cycle assessment of mounted 1.8kWp monocrystalline photovoltaic system with batteries and comparison with fossil energy production system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 428-437.
    15. Ibrahim, Oussama & Fardoun, Farouk & Younes, Rafic & Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna, 2013. "Energy status in Lebanon and electricity generation reform plan based on cost and pollution optimization," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 255-278.
    16. El Fadel, M. & Rachid, G. & El-Samra, R. & Bou Boutros, G. & Hashisho, J., 2013. "Emissions reduction and economic implications of renewable energy market penetration of power generation for residential consumption in the MENA region," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 618-627.
    17. Heidari, Negin & Pearce, Joshua M., 2016. "A review of greenhouse gas emission liabilities as the value of renewable energy for mitigating lawsuits for climate change related damages," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 899-908.
    18. Evans, Annette & Strezov, Vladimir & Evans, Tim J., 2009. "Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 1082-1088, June.
    19. El-Fadel, R.H. & Hammond, G.P. & Harajli, H.A. & Jones, C.I. & Kabakian, V.K. & Winnett, A.B., 2010. "The Lebanese electricity system in the context of sustainable development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 751-761, February.
    20. Kinab, E. & Elkhoury, M., 2012. "Renewable energy use in Lebanon: Barriers and solutions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4422-4431.


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