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Credit rationing by loan size: A synthesized model

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  • Kjenstad, Einar C.
  • Su, Xunhua
  • Zhang, Li

Abstract

We construct a synthesized model to study credit rationing by loan size. In our model, the borrower faces a trade-off between raising debt and exerting costly effort to undertake an investment project. In the absence of agency costs, increasing the loan size at the equilibrium interest rate raises the default risk and hence reduces the average cost of the loan for the borrower, so the borrower always demands a larger loan than what the lender can offer. Furthermore, agency cost raises this excess demand for a given interest rate. If the agency cost is sufficiently high, the borrower is unable to obtain the loan she needs at any interest rate, requiring the use of non-price instruments in the loan contract. In sum, we generalize the two types of credit rationing in a unified framework that facilitates our understanding of credit rationing due to various ex-post agency issues.

Suggested Citation

  • Kjenstad, Einar C. & Su, Xunhua & Zhang, Li, 2015. "Credit rationing by loan size: A synthesized model," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 20-27.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:quaeco:v:55:y:2015:i:c:p:20-27
    DOI: 10.1016/j.qref.2014.08.001
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    Cited by:

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    2. Miglo, Anton, 2022. "Theories of financing for entrepreneurial firms: a review," MPRA Paper 115835, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Yu Zhang & Xiong Xiong & Wei Zhang & Xuefeng Liu, 2018. "Credit Rationing and the Simulation of Multi-bank Credit Market Model: A Computational Economics Approach," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 52(4), pages 1233-1256, December.
    4. Naranchimeg Mijid & Caroline Elliott, 2015. "Gender differences in Type 1 credit rationing of small businesses in the US," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 1021553-102, December.
    5. Niinimäki, Juha-Pekka, 2018. "Collateral in credit rationing in markets with asymmetric information," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 97-102.
    6. David Aristei & Gabriele Angori, 2022. "Heterogeneity and state dependence in firms’ access to bank credit," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 59(1), pages 47-78, June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Credit rationing; Agency cost; Loan size; Collateral;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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