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Who gentrifies low-income neighborhoods?

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Listed:
  • McKinnish, Terra
  • Walsh, Randall
  • Kirk White, T.

Abstract

This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990s. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990s are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households.

Suggested Citation

  • McKinnish, Terra & Walsh, Randall & Kirk White, T., 2010. "Who gentrifies low-income neighborhoods?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 180-193, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:67:y:2010:i:2:p:180-193
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ingrid Gould Ellen & Katherine O'Regan, 2008. "Reversal of Fortunes? Lower-income Urban Neighbourhoods in the US in the 1990s," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 45(4), pages 845-869, April.
    2. John M. Clapp & Stephen L. Ross, 2004. "Schools and Housing Markets: An Examination of School Segregation and Performance in Connecticut," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(499), pages 425-440, November.
    3. Rosenthal, Stuart S., 2008. "Old homes, externalities, and poor neighborhoods. A model of urban decline and renewal," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 816-840, May.
    4. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn & Jordan Rappaport, 2000. "Why Do The Poor Live In Cities?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1891, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    5. David Card & Alexandre Mas & Jesse Rothstein, 2008. "Tipping and the Dynamics of Segregation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(1), pages 177-218.
    6. Sweeney, James L., 1974. "A commodity hierarchy model of the rental housing market," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 288-323, July.
    7. Elvin K Wyly & Daniel J Hammel, 2004. "Gentrification, segregation, and discrimination in the American urban system," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 36(7), pages 1215-1241, July.
    8. Jan K. Brueckner & Stuart S. Rosenthal, 2009. "Gentrification and Neighborhood Housing Cycles: Will America's Future Downtowns Be Rich?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(4), pages 725-743, November.
    9. Coulson, N Edward & Bond, Eric W, 1990. "A Hedonic Approach to Residential Succession," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 433-444, August.
    10. Raphael W. Bostic & Richard W. Martin, 2003. "Black Home-owners as a Gentrifying Force? Neighbourhood Dynamics in the Context of Minority Home-ownership," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 40(12), pages 2427-2449, November.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gentrification Demographics Neighborhood change Residential mobility Displacement;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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