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A slacks-based inefficiency measure for a two-stage system with bad outputs


  • Fukuyama, Hirofumi
  • Weber, William L.


We model the performance of DMUs (decision-making units) using a two-stage network model. In the first stage of production DMUs use inputs to produce an intermediate output that becomes an input to a second stage where final outputs are produced. Previous black box DEA models allowed for non-radial scaling of outputs and inputs and accounted for slacks in the constraints that define the technology. We extend these models and build a performance measure that accounts for a network structure of production. We use our method to estimate the performance of Japanese banks, which use labor, physical capital, and financial equity capital in a first stage to produce an intermediate output of deposits. In the second stage, those deposits become an input in the production of loans and securities investments. The network estimates reveal greater bank inefficiency than do the estimates that treat the bank production process as a black box with all production taking place in a single stage.

Suggested Citation

  • Fukuyama, Hirofumi & Weber, William L., 2010. "A slacks-based inefficiency measure for a two-stage system with bad outputs," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 398-409, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:38:y:2010:i:5:p:398-409

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